631 Db1 Replies

631 Db1 Replies

Antoinette Williams PEER 1

As a church youth leader, I see dozens of teenagers weekly. One young lady just turned 18 years old in December of 2023. Reviewing her early teenage years up until now, she did not embody the ‘storm and stress’ view some scholars hold. She was very active in sports, maintained her grades, and was active and faithful in the local church. Her parents recently testified to her walk with Christ and going ‘easy on them’ during the early teenage years.

The idea of ‘storm and stress’ in adolescence has changed significantly since Arnett’s writing. We know more now regarding the biophysiological and neurological development that takes place in puberty and adolescence. New knowledge and technological advancements have allowed us to see what is taking place within the brain and body. This knowledge has led to a deeper understanding and greater measure of patience and awareness in society when dealing with teenagers. Arnett discusses increased individualism in his writing (Arnett, 1999) and I would build on that by adding increased awareness of neurodivergence, cultural sensitivity, and being trauma informed as factors that lead to a greater appreciation of differences.

With increased access to technology and the explosion of social media, I believe adolescents would experience more storm and stress today compared to 25 years ago. However, the storm and stress that technology and social media brings is not limited to adolescents but affects all people well into young adulthood and adulthood. My argument, therefore, would be like the author’s in saying that storm and stress is more prevalent in adolescence than at other ages but not limited to just adolescence (Arnett, 1999, p. 317).

In a study conducted in 2023, researchers found that “difficulties and challenges increased in adolescence compared to childhood in Western contexts and those subject to Western influences” (Buchanan et al., 2023, p. 11). Buchanan et al, highlight the importance of including trajectories and typicality in development when discussing storm and stress. Particularly that externalizing and internalizing behaviors have trajectories in development, but typicality of a behavior (loneliness, sadness, moodiness) is highly influenced and varied by culture (Buchanan et al, 2023). Results confirmed this by showing support of longstanding research on alternative and more positive characterizations of adolescence, often based on qualitative data from non-Western societies (Buchanan et al., 2023).

            The Apostle Paul teaches in the New Testament, “And, ye fathers, provoke not your children to wrath: but bring them up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord” (Ephesians 6:4, 2012, King James Version). The adolescent years can be a trying time for teenagers and their families as they navigate biological changes, friends, social media, and other cultural influences. It is easy to get frustrated with our children when externalizing and internalizing behaviors are increasing. Paul reminds us that we as adults should not provoke or exacerbate our children as they are growing and developing. Rather it takes both admonishment and a loving, supportive, and nurturing hand to bring them up.

This passage is supported by Proverbs 22:6 which encourages the believer to guide and instruct children in the way they should go and when they are older, they will not depart (Proverbs 22:6, 2012, KJV). Create a safe environment for your children that is built on the word of God. Nurture them and provide strong and loving guidance and God will be with you and your children. He is our creator and Father and there is nothing happening within them that he is not aware of. God is faithful and we can trust our children to him.

After reading about storm and stress, the discussion question I would pose relates to Christian faith and community. How does faith and Christian community mitigate potential periods of storm and stress in adolescents and their families?


Arnett, J. J. (1999). Adolescent storm and stress, reconsidered. 
The American Psychologist, 54(5), 317-326. 

https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.54.5.317Links to an external site.

Buchanan, C. M., Zietz, S., Lansford, J. E., Skinner, A. T., Di Giunta, L., Dodge, K. A., Gurdal, S., Liu, Q., Long, Q., Oburu, P., Pastorelli, C., Sorbring, E., Steinberg, L.,

     Tapanya, S., Uribe Tirado, L. M., Yotanyamaneewong, S., Alampay, L. P., Al-Hassan, S., Bacchini, D., Deater-Deckard, K. (2023). Typicality and trajectories of

     problematic and positive behaviors over adolescence in eight countries. 
Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 991727-

https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.991727Links to an external site.

Holman KJV study bible (2012). Holman Bible Publishers.

Hallie Fraser


How has the outlook of storm and stress evolved overtime? When reviewing the article of Storm and Stress it was clear to see how much of my previous self and even current adolescence, I am around reflecting this viewpoint. This understanding is revolved around an adolescent’s difficulty with conflict with parents, mood disruptions, and risk behavior. In saying this an example, I have recently evaluated is in my own job. I am a caretaker of 3 children and the oldest is a 12-year-old girl who will soon be 13 and she displays most of the conflict with parents and mood disruptions. Arnett (1999) expressed that conflict with parents is not only visible with parents but as well as siblings every 3 days. In this case I feel with this preteen it happens more often than every 3 days. Not only does she fight everything her parents ask her to do (conflict with parents) she also expresses mood disruptions with constant mood swings and having a high ego. It is getting to the point where her parents are getting tired of her behavior. At the rate of this child’s behavior this storm and stress example could lead to parental burnout. According to Zimmermann (2022) the display of storm and stress in children may lead the parents to display exhaustion, emotional disconnection, and emotionally drained from the child. When it comes to risk behavior, I would not say she displays this as much because unless it comes to her siblings, she’s not a very violent individual. Arnett (1999) explained that the majority of adolescents with risk behavior are boys rather than girls. This explains why she does not display the behavior of her.

Additionally, I feel that overtime since the article was released storm and stress has increased in our current age adolescents because of things such as social media and peer pressure to be able to fit in. The level of storm and stress I feel has increased tremendously and it is clear even in small observation of adolescents today that there is a lot of rage and anger displayed. Social media and advanced technology is the worst thing that children could be exposed to because there is so many negative things that can conform the child’s behavior to be someone they truly are not. In another example, although my brother is almost no longer an adolescent ever since he has been one, he has had a video game system. More specifically when he was in middle school, which I feel is peak for storm and stress viewpoint in adolescent, he displayed anger and rage and all three categories that make up what storm and stress is. When he would have his video games taken away because of his actions you could tell he was a completely different person. I truly believe that the impact of technology increases the risk for adolescence to display storm and stress behavior. When it comes to encouraging an adolescent with a biblical viewpoint I would lead them to Ephesians 4:29 that states, “Let no corrupting talk come out of your mouths, but only such as is good for building up, as fits the occasion, that it may give grace to those who hear” (ESV) because their actions and the words that come out of their mouth can impact the increase or decrease of what storm and stress is.


Arnett, J. J. (1999). Adolescent storm and stress, reconsidered. 
American Psychologist
54(5), 317–326. 

https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.54.5.317Links to an external site.

English Standard Vesrion Bible. (n.d.). BibleGateway. 

https://www.biblegateway.com/ Links to an external site.

Zimmermann, G., Antonietti, J.-P., Mageau, G., Mouton, B., & Van Petegem, S. (2022). Parents’ Storm and Stress Beliefs about Adolescence: Relations with Parental Overprotection and Parental Burnout. 
Swiss Psychology Open
2(1), 1–15.