1. The movement I believe contributed most to the field of counseling today would be Car Rogers, The Practice of Client-Centered Therapy. Before the 1940s having a counseling session was like attending a class with a professor. Counseling then was not like counseling now. “Roger’s described this capacity as an actualizing tendency or a form of self-actualization.” (healthresearchfunding.org) There are 6 factors for growth in person-centered therapy which are: Psychological contact, Client Vulnerability, Therapist Genuineness, Therapist Positive Regard, Therapist Empathy, and Client Perception. It is the therapist who begins to learn the client and then comes to trust each other, by sharing their knowledge and wisdom the end result is hopefully change for the better. The movement I feel is least impactful is Sigmund Freud publishing his landmark book “Interpretation of Dreams” in 1900. Dreamwork involves the process of condensation, displacement, secondary elaboration, and symbolization. “Freud believed that is was possible to uncover the latent content and gain insight into the unconscious mind.” (simplypsychology.org) Freud developed several techniques to uncover the latent content of dreams which are: free association, transference, dream analysis, symbol interpretation, and consideration of repressions. It is important as well but not used as much as the client-centered therapy is. Which do you think is more important of the two I chose? Do you think that the interpretation of dreams is used as much as the client-centered therapy? Why or why not?
2. I believe the humanism movement contributed the most to the field of counseling. According to Neukrug (2016), humanistic counseling and education played a pivotal role in transitioning the counseling field from focusing primarily on vocational guidance to a more expansive and inclusive orientation. The concept of self-actualization, introduced by Maslow, became a central theme. It refers to the innate drive in individuals to realize their full potential and achieve personal fulfillment (Clay, 2002). Carl Rogers developed client-centered therapy, later known as person-centered therapy. This approach emphasized creating a supportive and empathetic therapeutic relationship, allowing clients to explore and understand their feelings and experiences (Clay, 2002).
It is not easy to pick what movement was the least impactful. I believe it is the testing movement. Although tests are still used today in counseling practices, many concerns exist. For example, one significant criticism of standardized testing is its potential cultural bias. Critics argue that certain groups, particularly those from diverse cultural backgrounds, may be disadvantaged by tests that do not adequately consider their cultural context (Reynolds & Brown, 1984). This has led to concerns about the fairness and equity of testing practices. Over time, there has been growing resistance to the exclusive reliance on standardized testing. Many educators, researchers, and policymakers have advocated for alternative assessment methods.
Which historical movement do you find the most interesting?