Module 3

Module 3

There were several factors discussed that could increase the potential success of a behavior chain procedure. Based on all of the readings and support from a resource you have located independently, elaborate on how you will be able to create successful behavior chain procedures and what potential problems you may need to address.

They use AI & Turn it 

please use the articles I have attached and one outside source APA Format , 

Training Fine Motor Skills with the Big 6+6 A Precision Teaching Approach

E. Anne Desjardins, M.Ed.

The Big 6+6 are basic fine motor movements, or elements, that all individuals must have at fluent performance rates if they are to be proficient at manipulating any objects for stimulation, at self-help skills, at mobility, non-verbal communication, etc.

The ''Big 6" is a convenient label for the elements of reach, point, touch, grasp, place and release. The "+6" stands for pull, push, shake, squeeze, tap and twist.

Ifyou are working with children who have motor delays, it is often extremely helpful to practice and measure these skills in isolation as well as practicing and measuring them as compounds.

Another essential component you must have to work on these skills is channels. We use channels to describe the input we give to the child and the output or response the child makes. We pay close attention to getting children to performance standards on each channel and watch carefully their performance levels when we shift to a less supportive channel. A common channel sequence for ''Big 6" topics flows like this:

Input Output Abbreviation Guide Reach G/Reach Touch Reach T/Reach Hear-Touch Reach H-To/Reach Hear Reach H/Reach See Reach Se/Reach

Do not necessarily work on only one channel at a time. An individual's curriculum may include a G/Reach as well as a To/Reach and a H-To/Reach. Try to move through the channels as quickly as possible without losing the performance frequency.

I would advocate working on each ''Big 6+6" topic in isolation as well as in a compound. We have had a good deal of success teaching skills this way.

Training Fine Motor Skills with the Big 6+6 A Precision Teaching Approach

E. Anne Desjardins, M.Ed.

Big 6 in isolation

B.eruili – hold up an object for the child to reach towards – give whatever assistance your channel stipulates – as soon as the child moves towards theiobject, move the object in another

direction so the child is tracking the object with their hand – do not let the child make contact with the object after each reach. You want the

movement to be repeated over and over again. Since grasping and manipulating the object can be a natural reinforcer, you may want to build up the ratio of reaches to reinforcement when you first begin

– practice the reaching for a few minutes. Time the child for 15 or 3 0 seconds, counting the number of reaches

– chart the information on the Standard Celeration Chart – it is very important to always give assistance at normal levels of performance.

For example, ifyou are guiding, you should be guiding at a rate of200-300 reaches/minute.

:e.oint – have objects in front of the child, on the wall etc. – have the child point, preferably with an outstretched finger, to each object one

after another – keep repeating the sequence – practice for a few minutes then time for 15 or 3 0 seconds, counting the number ofpoints

– chart the information on the Standard Celeration Chart

Touch – this can be done in the same way as point, the only difference being that the child actually touches the object.

Crrasp and Release – this can be done with any object. Squeak toys are fun, as are marbles in a can.

We have used wooden spoons and pencils or markers. Here the teacher holds the pencil and the child grasps and releases repeatedly.

– remember the only movement being done here is grasping and releasing, so the child does not reach for the object or place the object anywhere. Ifyou are using something like marbles in a can, use the large marbles and hold the child's hand over the can. You put the marble in their hand. All they do is grasp and release it.

– practice for a few minutes, then time for 15 or 30 seconds. – count the number ofmarbles in the can and chart the information on the Standard

Celeration Chart

Training Fine Motor Skills with the Big 6+6 A Precision Teaching Approach

E. Anne Desjardins, M.Ed.

:eI.ac.e. – here we put something small in the child's hand and have them hold onto it. – place a container in front of the child – the child is to reach and place their hand over the container and then bring their

arm back to a starting position. This is one place. – they repeat this movement over and over again, but they do not release the

object. – practice and then time for 15 or 3 0 seconds, counting the number of places – chart the information on the Standard Celeration Chart

Big 6 as a compound – here the child reaches for an object, touches it, grasps it, places it over a

container and releases it. We have used marbles in a can or basin, small blocks, clothespins etc.

·_have the child practice and then time the child for 30 seconds or one minute – count the number of objects in the container and chart the information on the

Standard Celeration Chart

Pull-Push – use Fisher-Price corn poppers, small brooms, desk or file drawers, toy

cars with sirens etc. – the child pushes the object forwards and pulls it back. This is one pull

movement. They repeat it over an over again. – practice for a few minutes, then time for 15 or 30 seconds, counting the

number ofmovements. – chart the information on the Standard Celeration Chart

Shake. – use rattles or anything that makes a noise when you shake it – the child repeatedly shakes the object – practice; then time for 15 or 30 seconds, counting the number of shakes – chart the information on the Standard Celeration Chart

Squeeze – we have had the most success with plant atomizers, Windex bottles, water pistols, squeak toys etc.

– the child squeezes the handle of the atomizer and shoots a stream ofwater into a container, onto a plant, etc. – practice, then time for 15 or 30 seconds, counting the number of squeezes – chart the information on the Standard Celeration Chart

Training Fine Motor Skills with the Big 6+6 A Precision Teaching Approach

E. Anne Desjardins, M.Ed.

Iap. – use xylophones, drums, table tops etc. – have the child extend a finger and tap repeatedly on the surface – practice, then time for 15 or 30 seconds – chart the information on the Standard Celeration Chart

Tuist – we have had the most success using doorknobs – place the child's hand on the doorknob and have them twist it repeatedly – practice, then time for 15 or 30 seconds – chart the information on the Standard Celeration Chart

All these elements should be at 200-300/minute. We usually work with both hands on all "Big 6+6" topics and chart each hand separately.

The amount of practice time you provide during the day will be critical. Always have objects for the child to reach for and manipulate. The assistance you provide during direct teaching will start impacting their behavior when they are out of the program. The child will begin reaching out for people, toys, eating utensils, etc. One interesting outcome we had was the children were able to brush away flies and mosquitoes in the summertime!

It really will make the difference when you get these skills to fluent levels of performance with your students. I have seen children who have spent years in bed start to manipulate toys, feed themselves, balance themselves and gain mobility (crawling) once we have the "Big 6+6" at fluent performance levels. Even when we have been working on Guide and Hear-Touch as inputs, we see children begin to operate on independent channels.



Three Generic Hierarchical Curriculum Levels

As we have discussed, basic tool skills are the fundamental units of performance, those minimal response sets (Alessi, 1987) that underpin virtually all_ of the instructional objectives in each foundation domain. Think of a tool skill as the hub of a wheel with many spokes, each spoke representing a component skill in a domain, the wheel itself representing a domain. Fluent tool skills facilitate the learning and fluency of each component, which in turn facilitate the learning and mastery of the compound repertoires, those most authentic indicators of competence in everyday life. For example in reading, phonics and other word identification skills are tools for mastering vocabulary and comprehension skills. To comprehend a story or essay, the learner must be able to read the words it contains. To master long division, a learner must know her math facts. A learner cannot write good sentences unless she can produce letters and correctly spelled words.

The relation between intermediate component skills and compound repertoires shows a dependency similar to the one that holds between tool skills and intermediate component skills. Authentic, real-world compound repertoires are composed of intermediate component skills. When we call someone an excellent reader, we mean that they demonstrate an authentic, real-world approach to reading-a compound repertoire. They are strategic and engaged when they read. Such strategic, engaged reading requires the application of many component reading skills, including background knowledge and vocabulary inherent in what is being read, and application of many comprehension skills such as making predictions, drawing conclusions, and m~king connections between what they are reading and other aspects of their lives or ot~er material they have read. Real-world quantitative reasoning and problem solving-the authentic, compound



mathematical repertoire-requires application . of many inter~ed~ate component skills, including computation, quant1tat1ve . . concepts, and understanding of verbal/quant1tat1ve statements. Excellent writers demonstrate a compound _repertoire that requires application of many component skills, such as sentence writing, organization and sequencing of sentences and paragraphs, and selecting words to have the best effect upon a reader.

This structural account presents an incomplete picture of the relations between and among the three levels of curriculum in each domain. Other parts make up the whole besides the skills defined in each level of the domain. Other repertoires are required to bridge and integrate between tool skills and component skills and between component skills and compound repertoires.

At Morningside, we have found that the integration of tool skills and component skills is fairly straight-forward; high frequencies of tool skills make it likely that they will occur as required during the acquisition of component skills; at most a few prompts may be necessary.

The integration of component skills and compound repertoires is more complex. In addition to fluent component skills, other repertoires must be learned and applied during the application process. These include some organizational and sequential behaviors, and the overall Thinking Aloud Problem Solving (TAPS) repertoire. Other problem solving skills are also required, including learning to see a pr~blem or opportunity when one occurs; exploring, selecting, and specifying components in one's repertoire that are relevant; and summarizing one's place in the application perfor~ance _at many points throughout that proces~. The~e tntegrattve repertoires must be instructed and practiced until flue~t, ~nd then systematically applied when appropriate. The app!icat1on

. . h h re component skills and h f . e p ace w eP ase o 1nstruct1on 1s t 1


· come together. For example, during· · . · e repertoires 1ncegrativ d di·ng a word phrase or other unit of · · ngage rea , ' strate~ic, e mpt the reader to converse with himself meaning may pro . · d d ·

· between what 1s being rea an previous about the relauon ld .

d . d 1~ce experiences. The reader cou engage in the rea 1ngs an w 1 TAPS protocol to explore these ~ast even.ts, se ect . ones to

. nd contrast in specific detail, organize andcompare a . summarize the similarities and differences, and lat~r report to listeners and readers. The reactivity of readers and listeners will serve as natural rcinforcers to make certain reports more and less likely in the future.

Reading Tool Skills. Table 20 presents the specific reading tool

skills, component skills and compound repertoires that we teach. Teachers spend approximately 30 minutes each day instructing and arranging the practice of phonics, word identification skills, and expressive oral reading to fluency aims. Direct Instruction and Precision Teaching are used to teach these skills and make them automatic. The programs we use range from Headsprout Early Reading and Read Well at the beginning level, to decoding programs for struggling readers (for example, Maloney' s Teach Your Children to Read Well, Engelmann's Corrective Reading-Decoding), to skill-based bridges to basal readers such as Dr. Anita Archer's REWARDS and REWARDS Plus. Teachers apply DI techniques in what :'e call "boardwork" to teach word identification skills, which mclude letter sounds, letter sound combinations word parts, WO~ 5 d" ' " ?un ing out procedures, and word-part emphasis

( accenting,,) St d . . . . · u ents monitor their progress and request interventions w.1th S d d /

tan ar Celeration Charts for see say sounds, words d/ d"~fi ' an or prose fluency. When students have

lri icu1ty learnin d 'd . k them d . g wor i entification skills teachers brea.

own furth d ' . er an teach · deficient auditory sensory


behaviors (Phonological Coding; Haughton, 1999) . · al b h · , and/ or

deficient v1su sensory e av1ors (Rahid Auto . N. . _ r matte ammg

(RAN); Haughton 2003). When students have m d h . . astere t ese wol skills, more time 1s spent teaching levels 2

d an d 3, and learners advance to stan ard basal reading programs such as Scott Foresman 2002 and Open Court 2002 for grades 2_6 d

,~£' ,~Holt's Elements o1 tterature, 2005 for middle and high school. (See Table 1 for details of recommended programs.)

Component Skills. Teachers spend approximately 30 minutes each day instructing and arranging practice of component skills. Prior to each selection that the class will be reading, teachers use mathetics to "pre-teach" prerequisite facts, concepts, and principles ("background knowledge") that will maximize initial comprehension of upcoming reading selections. In an informal arrangement called "Activating Prior Knowledge," teachers ask students to contribute their own background knowledge to the background knowledge the teacher presents.

In the middle 30 minutes of a reading block teachers also use mathetics to instruct students in vocabulary relevant to an upcoming reading selection. We have develop:d nine mathetical formats for teaching vocabulary: (1) modeling, (2)

synonyms, (3) definitions, (4) advanced definitions, . (5) meaning in context, ( 6) paraphrasing definitions, (7) matching, (8) assertions using vocabulary: Yes, No and Why, and <9) s " h" vocabulary byentence completion. Teachers pre-teac .

. · select1ons chat se ectmg words and phrases from upcoming . . th · . · d tice exammtngey ant1c1pate will need instruction an prac ' h t th . 1 . ne or more t a

e nme mathetical formats and se ecting O • e w Id ' d Students practic

ou be appropriate for each wor · called 1

1vocab 1 . . . T h ·ng techno ogy u ary using a Prec1s1on eac Shuffled."

~iM:EDS:. "Say All Fast, Minute Each d~::i~ped by Dr. S MEDS 1s a flash card fluency technology £ r producing

teve Graff. The technology includes software o


SAFMEDS cards and an instruction _manual for writing cards

te fluency illustrated with lots of examples and that promo , . flash cards (Graff & Lindsley, 2002)

nonexamples Of . · Vocabulary is taught and practiced a few times .each week or more, as needed, to accelerate progress on celerat1on charts.

Teachers also teach comprehension skills each day.

Typical lists of comprehension ski~ls inclu~e 20 or mo~e, ~uch as author's point of view and bias, stating the main idea, predicting an outcome, drawing a conclusion, making a connection, summarizing a section, and so on. Morningside has developed a si.x-step mathetical format for teaching comprehension skills. After instruction, learners may practice applying the skills to short passages in rapid succession to

build fluency. Students also learn generic problem solving skills such

as TAPS, and other integrative repertoires during the component skills portion of the reading block.

Compound Repertoires. Teachers spend the final 30 minutes of each reading block developing compound repertoires while learners read a selection from their reading program as a group. The selections gradually increase in length and complexity of word attack, vocabulary, and comprehen~ion as students advance in grade levels. Selections eventually include novels and nonfiction books and content textb~oks. in Morningside' s Middle Schooi laboratory· ~orm_ngside has a specific protocol for monitoring . the

eco~mg performance of students during group selection ~adm~, ad~pted from Engelmann' s Reading .Mastery VI 1. eacher s Guide (SRA , 1984

) · Group selection reading occurs

most days.

At significant p · d · · . d. teach d oints uring group selection rea 1ng,

ers mo el appl" · d compreh . ki tcatton of both integrative repertoires an

ens1on s lls d · h use the d l d uring group selection reading. Teac ers

e aye prom · pting technology described in chapter 6

to help students_ pract~ce applying both integrative repertoires and comprehension skills. . .

After students finish a reading selection, they retell it. We use Dr. Anita Archer's REWARDS Plus methods to teach students how to extract details from a selection, and we extend her design by including broader formats for more formal story­ telling and information monologues. Teachers model good retelling, and ask students to practice retelling to their reading group. Students receive praise and corrective feedback for their retelling performance from the teacher and their peers. Morningside students work in pairs to develop checklists, and listen and score each other's retelling performances using the checklists. Free/say retelling is monitored on Standard Celeration Charts. Students practice retelling for a couple of days after finishing a selection, or more as needed to accelerate progress on celeration charts.

Writing . Tool Skills. Teachers spend approximately 30 minutes

each day instructing and arranging practic~ _of the basic t~ols skills of writing. These include handwriting; keyboardin~

. . · f m text J·ust below their skills· transcription or copying ro k . ' . d' ' 1 l· king dictation from spo en1nstruct1onal rea ing eve , ta

essing on a computer.passages· spelling; and word proc . ' h words then passages'

See/write and type letters, · t en d' then passages; hear/write and type letters, thend wor sal,1 monitored on

. 11" g wor s are hear/write and . type spe in tools skills such as

. 1 h F early 1earners,ce erat1on c arts. or very d .. g basic shapes are . · g an wnt1n paper position, penc il gnpptn ' · n charts

· d on ce 1 erat10 · also practiced and monitore d approximately 30

Component Skills. Teachers spen ·ng practice of two . . · and arrang1

minutes each day instructing mbining and Text entence cosets of . component skills: s


. e and Myra Linden are pioneers in the Arthur Whunb Y bining technology (Linden &

f sentence com 1 & 1· ddevelopment o . b Johnson, Wiliams, 10 en, Whimbey, 1990; Whimb. e~, exercises learners put two or

e com 1n1ng 1993). In sentenc h Teachers teach a sequence of more sentences coget er. each of which focuses upon a

b. · patterns sentence com ining. 'ention For example, to teach

. I rammatica1 conv . h h parcicu ar g h mathetical lessons to teac t e

. · 5 ceac ers use conJuncnon , d but for and so in the context of discrimination between an ' ' ' combining sentences. Here's an example:

Sentence 1: My neighbor said she wanted to go • to Europe in the worst way. Sentence 2: I let her take my kids . •

Students choose the correct punctuation and the correct connecting word. In this case, they would choose a comma and the connecting word "so." They then combine the sentences to achieve this compound sentence: ''My neighbor said she wanted to go to Europe in the worst way, so I let her take my kids."

All the rules of grammar and mechanics are taught in this way, including the most complicated arrangements of dependent clauses and use of gerunds as sentence subjects. During instruction students first imitate patterns for combining simple sentences into more complex sentences. ~uri~g practice, students practice a series of patterns, first in isola~10n, then in a cumulative mix. Morningside learners momtor and improve their sentence combining skills with celeration charts.

Dozens of studies over 30 years show that with at least20 h

cl ours of practice, sentence combining improves grammar an usage skills . h . , increases t e complexity of sentences, improves punctuat' k'll . . 1

ion s 1 s, improves proofreading skil s,


. ncreases reading levels, and even increases £ . · 1 d h 1· 1ore1gn . angua learning an t e qua ity of compositions . S d' . ge

er . h · tu 1es have· demonstrated t hese euects wit a variety of 1earners from fourth graders through college students d .1· f · · n ramat1c demonstrations o contingency adduction t cl' . . . , wo stu 1es compar:d 1?struct1on 10 a ~a~ge of composition genres · to instruction 1n sentence comb1n1ng alone without genre focus. They found that the sentence combining students wrote better compositions! (See O'Hare, 1973, with 7th graders; Daiker, Kerek & Morenberg, 1979, with college freshmen.) The most recent survey of sentence combining published by the National Council of Teachers of English concludes, "… no other single teaching approach has ever consistently been shown to have a beneficial effect on syntactic maturity and writing quality" (Linden & Whimbey, 1990, pp. 23-24).

Whimbey has recently expanded upon sentence combining in a technology he calls Prototype Construction (Whimbey, 2002). The method uses kernel subject-verb-object sentences to teach the general case of sentence writing. Prototype Construction exercises in sentence combining, sentence rearranging subtracting from sentences, and expanding sentences :each all of the conventions of English

grammar, usage, and mechanics. . r . d 1· d n again ror ourWe appeal ·to Wh1mbey an 1n e

kill curriculum: Textother core intermediate component s h h n · (TRC) teac es t en.econstruction. Text Reconstruction d

. . . 1 to a compoun organization and sequencing skills . cnttca Whimbey,

O repertoire of writing (Linden & Whimbey'. 19;R.c exercises, Johnson, Williams, & Linden, 1993). Dunn d jumbled learners order jumbled sentences into paragr~p s, aq:ences can Pa · If alternative se .ragraphs into essays or stories. mpare their be · · d nts to co .

Justified, teachers lead . stu e TAPS and its var1~nt ~rangements and discuss the differences. d during practice. Compare and Discuss" may also be use

· d agraphs are ordered, learners copy th es an par . h l . e once sencenc . their progress wit ce erat1on charts.

cs monitor B . .dtext. Seu en . k TRC's heritage to enJam1n Franklin 1 5L · den in · · h H · b ,

1n_ • h" brother's printing s op. is rother Was rked in is . . 1}w 10 wo . d for his superior printing; very we I-known

widely rcco~nlZ:e would use his print shop. Franklin would · . s of his time

wnrcr . ripts and cut chem up into sentences, put the ke their manusc d

ta . . bo shake the box, and then reor er and copy the strips 10 a x, · · TRC h l

an advanced variation on , e wou d writesentences. In , key words from author s sentences, order the setdown on Iy '

an<l attempt to recall the exact w~rdi,~g ~f the full sentences during the copying phase. I-fe said, This was to teach me method in the arrangement of thoughts" (Linden & Wimbey, 1990, p. 39), and claimed he owed his writing prowess to this practtCC.

The ordering contingency inherent in TRC requires the learner to carefully inspect the text. This detailed inspection and copying may produce finer discriminations, thus improving reading fluency, spelling, punctuation, English conventions, and even reasoning skills and mastery of facts and ~oncepts. In fact Linden has written an American History text ~n TR~ jumbled sentences! TRC also involves all four language ~ns skills: reading, talking, listening writing thus increasing ltS mult' l° · ' ' tp icat1ve power as a component skill.

Both sentence b. · · aybe appl' d . com 1n1ng and text reconstruct1on m ic to the lear ' eof first d afi ner s own writing process. Each sentenc

r t com · · Th compo · · positions can be written to the margin. e s1t1on can then b . .

exercise a d ecome a personal sentence combining, n a t h organization 1 dext reconstruction exercise to improve t e

a an seq ·a1 Compound R ue?t1' aspects of the composition.

rninuces each d, efertotres. Teachers spend approximately 30 Writin ay instruct' · · e of g Paragraph ing 1n and arranging pract1C &cnr s and · · ng

cs. In the r· essays and reports in different writ•. d p imary grades we use Dr. Siegfrie

Engelmann's Direct Instruction Expressive Writing I and II programs. In grades 4 through adult learning we use Dr. Anita Archer's (2002) An Instructional Model for Teaching Written Composition.

Archer's writing program teaches the critical attributes of seven writing genres, including descriptive paragraphs and reports, factual paragraphs and reports, persuasive writing, business letter writing, and narrative writing. Students encounter both examples and nonexamples of good writing in each genre, and use writing rubrics to judge their quality. For example, the rubric for a descriptive paragraph asks learners to rate the quality of a descriptive paragraph in the following manner:

1. 0 1 2 3 4 Does the first sentence tell what is being described?

2. 0 1 2 3 4 Do the other sentences tell more about what is being described?

3. 0 1 2 3 4 Are descriptive words used? 4. 0 1 2 3 4 Are the sentences written in logical

order? 5. 0 1 2 3 4 Does the paragraph paint a dear and

accurate picture of what is being described? 6. 0 1 2 3 4 Is the description easy for the reader to


Using a mathetical design, a teacher models use of the rubric, leads students to help her use the rubric to judge the quality of ocher paragraphs, and, when accurate, tests the learner's independent use of the rubric to judge additional paragraphs. Students practice writing descriptive paragraphs and use the rubric to improve their work. Students apply the rubrics to each other's writing and share their writing with the class. .

d . during the final 30 minutes spent

. As 1.n rea ing' h d 1 dd repertoires, teac ers mo e an students developing com?oun i·cation of component skills. These range1· trateg1c app d d h · practices . . sequencing, an wor c 01ce skills to

ntence wnnng, d . from se h compositions, an reports 10 different

· · g paragrap s, 1 .wrinn d practice app y1ng sentence combining1 0Stu ents a s . . T genres. ction co their own writing. eachers model

d text reconstru l . an . i·cation of other problem so v1ng repertoires1strategic app h d I . . · including TAPS, so t at stu ents earn to during wnt1ng, . h ' .

. h ·r own writing question how t ey ve written, andexamine t et ' ultimately improve their written product.

Mathematics Tool Skills. Teachers spend approximately 30 minutes

each day instructing and arranging practice of reading numbers, writing numbers, math facts, identifying place value, solving simple equations, factoring, and giving multiples of a number. Morningside Press publishes materials for building all of the math tool skills.

Component Skills. Teachers spend approximately 30 minutes each day instructing and arranging practice of computation skills, math concepts, and comprehending quantitative statements. Generic integrative repertoires are ~so . ta~ght during the middle 30 minutes, including ~dent~fying faulty quantitative reasoning TAPS and 1dent fy' ' '1 ing relevant components needed to solve math problems Mo · ·cl dE · , rningsi e recommends Saxon Mathematics an

nge1mann s Con · M hnect1ng ath Concepts series to teach mat component skills.

Compound R>h • • l 30 minutes h d el'ertozres· Teachers spend approximate Y .

eac ay mOd r 1c application f e ing and arranging practice of strateg

O quantitative t'0 ~Putation skills, math concepts, an.d application f re at1ons. Teachers also model strateg1c

0 generic int . . rheegrat1ve repertoires. They use

delayed prompting technology described in h . 1 . c apter 6 to h l

students practice app y1ng both integrativ . e p . . e repertoires and component mathemat1cs skills. . They also I d 1 .

· · · b d · . ea earners inquant1tat1ve, proJect- ase 1nvest1gations and in · . S . 1 d h · . . qu1r1es. axonMath inc u es mat 1nvest1gat1ons.


In a constantly evolving mode, each year the protocols for teaching reading, writing and math are revised based upon new instructional research and new published programs. All revisions conform to the Morningside Model of Generative Instruction. The process follows Markle' s system of instruction. Each revision also analyzes curriculum into the three hierarchical levels, according to the Tiemann and Markle learning outcomes model, complete with learning channels. Curricula are carefully sequenced to maximize mastery, fluency, celeration, and contingency adduction. The revised curricula are implemented according to the ~ phase_s of teaching characteristic of the Model and in the instructional blocks described above.

Each year's Summer School Institute provides · the opportunity for Morningside staff to share curricul~ anhd · 'fi d during t einterventions that have been learner-ven ie ·

. h approaches areprevious year and to show how t ese new . . f . in each curricu1ar integrated into the existing menu o options area.