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Project Management

Project Management

Discussion Forum Week 4Assigned Readings: Chapter 7: Holistic Scope PlanningChapter 8: Scheduling Projects Week 4 Discussion Forum, you will discuss your understanding of the readings from Kloppenborg, et al (2023) completed for Weeks 7 and 8. You will then think of three questions you’d like to ask other students and add these to the end of your thread (after the Reference section). The questions should be taken from Chapters 7 and 8 of the required course material (Kloppenborg, et al 2023) Finally, go to two (2) other students’ threads and post comments, answering at least one of their questions. Provide Continuing Discussion by responding to another student's response. The Continuing Discussion to the response to a response not a third response to an Initial Post. You must do the following:1) Create a new thread and ensure your initial post is properly formatted.  2) Draft a first section (200-250 words) answering, with supporting and properly cited source material, the following questions (Do not quote any of the source material, you must explain in your own words but properly citing material found in the assigned sources):

  • What is the first step in developing a project scope management plan? Is it different in traditional project management as compared with Agile?
  • Why is scope definition important?
  • What are two common causes of scope creep?

3) Draft a second section (200-250 words) explaining, with supporting source material, the following questions (Do not quote any of the source material, you must explain in your own words but properly citing material found in the assigned sources):

  • What is the difference between an activity and a work package?
  • What is another name for activity on node diagramming?
  • What purpose do project milestones serve?

4) Provide three (3) questions that you would like to ask other classmates in relation to the weekly reading material. These need to be specific questions based on weekly reading material identified above. Do not just ask general questions; be specific.

Chapter 7

Holistic Scope Planning

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To introduce this chapter.

Presenter Notes

References

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©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Icebreaker

What are two things you learned from Stakeholder Analysis and Communication Planning?

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To engage participants in the content of this chapter.

Presenter Notes

References

Pressmaster/Shutterstock.com

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©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Holistic Scope Planning (1 of 2)

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe the Scope Planning process.

Presenter Notes

References

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©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Holistic Scope Planning (2 of 2)

Overview of the Book
7.1 Plan Scope Management
7.2 Collect Requirements
7.3 Define Scope
7.4 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
7.5 Establish Change Control
7.6 PMBOK Guide 7e
7.7 Agile Projects
7.8 Summary

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To list the components covered in “Holistic Scope Planning” chapter.

Presenter Notes

References

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©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Core Objectives

7-1 Describe the planning of scope management and collecting requirements.

7-2 Define scope processes.

7-3 Create a requirements traceability matrix, project scope statement, and change request form.

7-4 Describe a work breakdown structure (WBS) and its importance to planning and control.

7-5 Compare different methods of developing a WBS.

7-6 Create a WBS, including work packages and a numbering system both by hand and using MS Project.

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe the Core Objectives.

Presenter Notes

References

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©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Agile Objectives

7-7 Use simplicity and emergent design in developing scope.

7-8 Capture user requirements as stories.

7-9 Create backlogs for a sprint and a release.

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe Agile Objectives.

Presenter Notes

References

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©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.1 Plan Scope Management (1 of 2)

Plan Scope Management
Scope Planning Flow

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To list the components covered in “Plan Scope Management” section.

Presenter Notes

References

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©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.1 Plan Scope Management (2 of 2)

Plan Scope Management is the process of developing a plan that includes the total scope of what needs to be done and what is excluded from the project; implementation and validation of the scope; and how to control deviations from the scope statement.

Total Scope = Product Scope + Project Scope

Product Scope outputs the team will deliver to its customers

Project Scope

the work needed to be performed in order to deliver the project’s outputs

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To define Plan Scope Management and what is meant by “Total” scope.

Presenter Notes

When planning scope, it is also wise to plan for changes.

The project team also needs to determine the project scope, which is the work required to be performed for delivering a product, service, or result with the required features and functions.

Together, the product scope (the outputs the team will deliver to its customers) and the project scope (the work they need to perform to create the project’s outputs) form the total scope of a project.

The project team members determine what they will do to ensure they have identified and organized all the project work, which is the basis of all other planning activities and also the basis for executing and controlling the project work.

References

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©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 7.1

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To illustrate the flow of scope planning.

Presenter Notes

References

Exhibit 7.1: Scope Planning Flow.

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©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.2 Collect Requirements

7.2a Ensure Clarity of Objectives
7.2b Gather Stakeholder Input and Needs
7.2c Define Needs as Requirements

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To list the components covered in “Collect Requirements” section.

Presenter Notes

A requirement is a condition or capability needed by the client or a user to solve a problem or achieve an objective that satisfies a standard, a specification, or any other formally documented need.

Collecting requirements is a systematic effort to understand and analyze stakeholder needs to define and document these requirements.

This will help in refining and meeting project objectives.

References

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©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.2a Clarity of Project Objectives

Collect Requirements to ensure that the project team is clear on the project objectives.

Describe in more depth what the expected project benefits are and/or what problems the project is attempting to overcome.

Understand the project’s objectives helps in revising the project plan later, if necessary.

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To define Collect Requirements and reinforce that the project team must be clear on the project objectives.

Presenter Notes

The project team members may describe in more depth what the expected project benefits are and/or what problems the project is attempting to overcome.

Understanding broad project objectives will help in making more-detailed decisions later.

References

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©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.2b Voice of the Customer

Use voice of the customer techniques (VOC).

Ask questions.

Place yourself in the customer’s situation.

State customer desires in operational terms.

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe ways to collect requirements.

Presenter Notes

New product development projects, teams often use voice of the customer (VOC) techniques to elicit the benefits and features the customers want from the project outcomes, expressed in the customer’s language.

Collecting requirements is same regardless of type of project.

Generally Agile documentation is less formal, they allowing for progressive elaboration.

Good project managers know that for a project to be successful, its outcomes must be useful to the project’s clients and their customers (end-users).

References

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©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.2b Common Methods for Obtaining and Documenting Requirements

Meetings with Stakeholders

Interviews

Focus Groups

Questionnaires

Surveys

Observations

Prototypes

Industry Standards

Reference Documents

Market Analysis

Competitive Analysis

Client Requests

Standard Specifications

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide examples of common methods for obtaining and documenting requirements.

Presenter Notes

The methods of developing a deep understanding of customers and their needs vary extensively from one industry to another.

References

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©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.2c Guiding Questions to Gather Input

Seek a high-level description:

What do we not understand about the feature?

What is the business reason for the feature?

What is the impact of not providing this feature?

What action items need to be accomplished if we do this?

What impact will this have on other features of the project or elsewhere?

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide some guiding questions for how to gather Stakeholder input and needs.

Presenter Notes

Requirements can be classified as functional/technical and nonfunctional.

The first category is usually the focus of needs assessment exercises and is centered on the performance of the deliverable—such as the mechanic’s needs just described.

The second category includes characteristics of requirements such as scalability, reliability, maintainability, and testability.

The Project Manager needs to understand how a project’s success will be determined from the customer’s perspective.

The best way to gain this understanding (and to begin building a strong relationship with customers) is to directly ask customers for clarification.

The project leaders can ask the customer(s) to specify how they will judge the quality of the product or service based on both functional and nonfunctional requirements.

References

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©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 7.2 (1 of 2)

Requirements Traceability Matrix
Id Requirement Acceptance Criteria Type Status Stakeholder Group(S) Priority Objectives
1 The BA must be able to customize the information collected for requirements. Stakeholder Approved BA Must PO#1
1.1 The system shall allow for the renaming of requirement attributes. BA can rename an existing field. Field displays the new name on input forms. Field displays the new name on reports. Functional Approved BA Must PO#1
1.2 The system shall allow new requirement fields to be identified. BA on adding a new field. BA can set field attributes. BA can indicate field lookup values. Custom field amiable for input. Custom field rabble for reports. Functional Approved BA Should PO#1
1.3 The system shall allow new requirement fields to be identified. BA can enter a custom list of lookup value. Lookup fields can be provided from an external system through data interface. Functional Approved BA Should PO#1

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe a Traceability Matrix.

Presenter Notes

Gather requirements along with other related information such as acceptance criteria for each requirement, which can be either high level or very detailed using specifications in measurable terms, using a Traceability Matrix.

The requirement type suggests whether the requirement is functional, nonfunctional, or needed by a particular stakeholder.

The traceability matrix also includes the status of the requirement, its priority, and who is responsible for the requirement.

References

Exhibit 7.2: Requirements Traceability Matrix.

Source: Vicki James, PMP, CBAP, PMI-PBA, CSM, author of Leveraging Business Analysis for Project Success. 15734_ch07_rev01_239-275.indd 245 21/03/22 4:18 PM

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©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 7.2 (2 of 2)

Requirements Traceability Matrix
2 The BA must be SA to provide different reports for different audiences. Stakeholder Approved BA. Team. Sponsor. Stakeholders Must PO#1
2.1 The system shall include a base set of standard reports. Reports include: Requirements Traceability Matrix Business Requirements Documents Functional Approved BA. Team. Sponsor. Stakeholders Must PO#1
2.2 The system shall allow a business analyst to filter reports based on various requirement attributes. BA can filter a report based on Type Stakeholder Status Priority Objective Functional Approved BA Should PO#1
2.3 The system shall provide an option to download data to an Excel-supported file so the BA can customize. BA can select to extract data to an Excel supported file Extracted data is formatted as a tabular data set with no row breaks Functional Proposed BA Should PO#1
2.4 The system shall allow for the customization of reports to include filtering and displayed fields. BA can select fields to include or exclude in the resulting report. BA can filter reports (see 2.2.1). Functional Approved BA Should PO#1

BA — Business Analyst (BA) is a person responsible for defining what will bring value to the business, ensuring requirements are fully vetted and understood, and that the solution meets expectations.1

PO#1 — Project Objective #1: “record, manage, communicate, and update requirements so that requirements can be captured once and then managed and communicated efficiently.”

Priority uses MoSCoW ratings — Must be included in the release (mandatory), Should be included in the release (highly desired), Could be included in the release (nice to have), Won’t be included in the release (out of scope)

Source: Vicki James, PMP, CBAP, PMI-PBA, CSM, author of Leveraging Business Analysis for Project Success.

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe a Traceability Matrix.

Presenter Notes

Gather requirements along with other related information such as acceptance criteria for each requirement, which can be either high level or very detailed using specifications in measurable terms, using a Traceability Matrix.

The requirement type suggests whether the requirement is functional, nonfunctional, or needed by a particular stakeholder.

The traceability matrix also includes the status of the requirement, its priority, and who is responsible for the requirement.

References

Exhibit 7.2: Requirements Traceability Matrix.

Source: Vicki James, PMP, CBAP, PMI-PBA, CSM, author of Leveraging Business Analysis for Project Success. 15734_ch07_rev01_239-275.indd 245 21/03/22 4:18 PM

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©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 7.3

Requirements Translated into Specifications
Requirements Specifications
Unambiguous—not subject to interpretation Unique set—each stated only once
Complete—nothing left out Normalized—should not overlap
Consistent—no conflicts, which also means no duplication Linked set—shows relationships
Modifiable—amenable to change Complete—nothing left out
Traceable—to a customer need Consistent—no conflicts
Verifiable—means provided to verify the requirement Bounded—specifies nonnegotiable constraints
Modifiable—amenable to change
Configurable—traceable changes
Granular—right level of abstraction

Adopted from: ISO IEEE IEC (2018)

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe how requirements are translated into specifications.

Presenter Notes

References

Exhibit 7.3: Requirements Translated into Specifications.

Source: Adopted from: ISO IEEE IEC (2018).

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©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.2c Profile of Complete Requirements

Traceable back to its business reason.

Identified with the Stakeholder(s)’ needs.

Unambiguous.

Qualified by measurable conditions.

Validated for its value and completion.

Bounded by constraints.

Prioritized according to value, cost, time, risk, or mandate to make trade-off decisions if needed.

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe how requirements are translated into specifications.

Presenter Notes

References

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18

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.3 Define Scope

7.3a Reasons to Define Scope
7.3b How to Define Scope

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To list the components covered in “Define Scope” section.

Presenter Notes

References

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©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.3a Reasons to Define Scope

Define scope is the process of translating Stakeholder needs and requirements into detailed specifications of the project outcomes and products.

The project Scope Statement includes three things:

What to deliver to the project Stakeholders at the end of the project.

What work must be done to create the deliverables.

What will limit or influence the project work.

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide reasons to define scope.

Presenter Notes

Scope, or total scope, is the sum of product scope and project scope, considering exclusions, constraints, and assumptions.

While the requirements represent the customers’ statement of what they need, the defined scope is the project team’s response.

References

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©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.3a Scope Creep

Scope definition also is vital in preventing scope creep, which happens for two common reasons:

Scope is not clearly defined and agreed upon.

Customer is excited about the process and innocently asks for more.

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide explain scope creep.

Presenter Notes

In contemporary business, pleasing the customer is desirable.

However, the best time to gain customer understanding is when the project team is defining the scope—not while executing the project scope work.

References

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©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.3b How to Define Scope

List project deliverables

Determine acceptance criteria

Establish project boundaries

In scope versus Out of scope

Understand constraints

Create a Scope Definition

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To list the steps to define scope.

Presenter Notes

Scope definition can vary greatly from one project to another.

For a small, routine construction project, it may be quite simple to determine project outputs and the work involved in creating them.

On other projects, such as one large company acquiring another, it may be difficult to determine the total amount of work.

Regardless of how easy or difficult it may be to define scope and despite industry-specific methods that may help, all project teams must complete each part of this scope planning process.

References

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©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 7.4 (1 of 2)

Scope Statement

Project: Mezquital Valley Project: Socio-Political Dynamics in Northern Mesoamerica. January 2019.

Project Work Statement: To understand the components of the Acahualzingo altepetl (prehispanic socio-political unit) as one of the northern-most political units of the Mesoamerican geopolitical concept, while gaining advancement in the definition of activity areas in said polity through a systematic surface survey, with total coverage and pinpoint explorations.

Key Deliverables Acceptance Criteria
Report to the Archaeology Council authorities Reports, registries, and analysis by Project members. Approval from the Archaeology Council, National Anthropology and History Institute, Mexico (INAH)
Next season’s project, delivered to the Archaeology Council Detailed research for an upcoming project (field season), including resources needed, schedules, etc. Approved by the Archaeology Council
Written report of activities, analyses, inventory, etc. by Students Written report presented before project’s director and approved
Publication(s) Approved draft for publication (article, book chapter, etc.)

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an example of a Scope Statement.

Presenter Notes

A project scope statement guides the project team during subsequent planning and execution.

For some very small projects, a well-developed project Charter could also serve as a Scope Statement.

On most projects, a scope statement needs to be developed before the development of the WBS.

References

Exhibit 7.4: Scope Statement.

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Exhibit 7.4 (2 of 2)

Exclusions: This has been an ongoing project site for over 34 years, so currently the only possible exclusions considered would be denial from the local authorities and population to carry on the proposed surveys and research. In that case, a secondary research area would have to be proposed.

Constraints: The main logistical constraints for the project are the relatively “reduced” number of students allowed to participate. Although this is to guarantee a close follow-up and mentorship of the students, focused on them developing the necessary skills to carry on proper surface survey abilities, it also means taking a hit on the number of areas and overall reach of the season’s field work.

Assumptions: All students participating are assumed of legal age and administratively in order with the College programs. (At this point the field trip was carried out just days before the pandemic declaration and nationwide lockdowns due to COVID-19.)

Source: Rodrigo Villanova, PhD, author of Project Management for Archeology.

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an example of a Scope Statement.

Presenter Notes

A project scope statement guides the project team during subsequent planning and execution.

For some very small projects, a well-developed project Charter could also serve as a Scope Statement.

On most projects, a scope statement needs to be developed before the development of the WBS.

References

Exhibit 7.4: Scope Statement.

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©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.4 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

7.4a What Is the WBS?
7.4b Why Use a WBS?
7.4c WBS Formats
7.4d Work Packages
7.4e How to Construct a WBS

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To list the components covered in “Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)” section.

Presenter Notes

After scope definition is complete, the Project Manager will have greater clarity about project work and milestones as compared to the high-level understanding of the project when the project Charter is defined.

The milestones defined in the project charter are not necessarily accurate due to a lack of complete understanding of the total project work at the time it was created.

It is important to note that the project Charter must be seen as an authorization document with an accuracy of estimates (cost and time) in the range of  50% or more.

With the definition of scope, more details about the project are available to develop the WBS and new milestones, and then time and cost estimate accuracy levels increase considerably.

A detailed understanding of the project scope and work to be performed must be simplified for execution, and it is essential to divide the total work into smaller, manageable elements.

A tool that is used on virtually all traditional projects is the WBS.

To understand this tool, we will first define it, tell why it is important, show common formats, and then demonstrate the steps required to construct a WBS.

References

n/a

25

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.4a What Is the WBS?

A project planning tool defined as the hierarchical decomposition of the project scope into deliverable work elements at the lowest level.

Helps develop an optimum project schedule and cost estimates at the work element level.

Define activity is a project-planning process that identifies and determines specific actions to develop and deliver the project outcomes, such as products, services, or results.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To define the Work Breakdown Structure.

Presenter Notes

The WBS is a framework that is used as a basis for further planning, execution, and control.

Typically, the WBS is created after the scope is defined on large projects.

In contemporary project management, particularly on small- and middle-sized projects, the WBS may be created concurrently with the scope statement.

To clearly distinguish between the work processes of WBS development and activity development, WBS development is covered in this chapter, and activity development is covered as part of project scheduling.

References

n/a

26

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.4b Why Use a WBS?

Ensures all parts of project are considered.

Adds discipline and visibility to project planning.

Basis for planning schedule, resources, cost, quality, and risk.

Useful in determining where and why problems occur.

Helpful in project communications.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe why you use a Work Breakdown Structure.

Presenter Notes

If a problem occurs during project execution, the WBS is helpful in understanding exactly where and why the problem occurred.

This helps to diagnose problems, manage the quality of the project deliverables, and keep all the other facets of the project on schedule while the isolated problem is fixed.

References

n/a

27

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.4c WBS Formats

A WBS usually has one or more intermediate levels (frequently called interim deliverables).

All levels of the WBS with at least one level below are considered summary levels.

The completion of summary-level elements is based upon the completion of all levels underneath.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To explain Work Breakdown Structure formats.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

28

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 7.5

House WBS in Indented Outline Format

House

Project Management

Framed House

Foundation

Custom Framing Design

Wood

Assembled Frame

Wired House

Wiring Design

Wiring

Installed Wiring

Drywalled House

Drywall Drawing

Drywall

Hung Drywall

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an example of a WBS in the Indented Outline Format.

Presenter Notes

The WBS is useful when typing WBS into scheduling software.

References

Exhibit 7.5: House WBS in Indented Outline Format.

29

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 7.6

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an example of a WBS in the Free Format.

Presenter Notes

References

Exhibit 7.6: WBS in Free Format.

30

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.4d Work Packages (1 of 2)

Work Packages are the lowest level of the WBS for which cost and duration can be estimated and managed. They are the basis for subsequent planning and control.

The Work Package is the point from which:

Work activities are defined.

Schedule is formed.

Resources are aligned.

Control features are developed.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To define Work Packages.

Presenter Notes

The lowest level is known as a work package, which is usually the work component at the lowest level of the WBS, for which cost and duration can be estimated and managed.

Work packages are detailed enough to facilitate further planning and control.

For ease of communication and comprehension, work packages and other components of a WBS are usually stated in one to three words; one should avoid verbs and instead use adjectives to describe WBS elements at all levels.

References

n/a

31

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 7.7

Source: Kevin P. Grant, UTSA.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an illustration of a WBS with Work Package.

Presenter Notes

References

Exhibit 7.7: WBS Depicting Work Packages.

Source: Kevin P. Grant, UTSA.

32

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.4d Work Packages (2 of 2)

WBS Component is “an entry in the WBS that can be at any level.”

-PMBOK® Guide

WBS Dictionary is a document that provides detailed information about every work package, including deliverable details; activity; scheduling information; predecessor and successor activities; person responsible; resources required; and risks.

State Work Packages succinctly in very few words (use adjectives, not verbs!)

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To define a WBS component and WBS Dictionary.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

33

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 7.8

Work Package Detail
Project: Expansion to Full Scale Production Work Package: Assembly Hardware Test
Description: Plan, conduct, evaluate, and report results of tests to ensure proper function of the assembly hardware. Deliverable(s): Test results summary. Input(s): Assembly hardware prototype
Activities Resource Expected Duration Cost
Prepare test plan Production Analyst 8h $ 720
Conduct test Production Analyst 16h 1,440
Evaluate test results Production Analyst 6h 540
Prepare test results summary Production Analyst 8h 720
Production Analyst $3,420

Source: Kevin P. Grant, UTSA.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an example of Work Package detail.

Presenter Notes

References

Exhibit 7.8: Work Package Detail.

Source: Kevin P. Grant, UTSA.

34

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.4e How to Construct a WBS

Include appropriate subject matter experts (SMEs).

Use a top-down approach.

Consider WBS from a previous project as a starting point.

Use brainstorming.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe the steps to begin constructing a WBS.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

35

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.4e Steps in WBS Construction

Identify major deliverables.

Decompose deliverables.

Continue until deliverables are the right size.

Review.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To list the steps in constructing a WBS.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

36

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.4e Identify Major Deliverables

Begin with Scope Statement.

Organize in systematic manner such as by project phase.

Facilitates rolling wave planning—planning near-term work in detail and future work at a higher level.

Rolling wave planning → quick start.

Helps avoid:

Analysis paralysis—never starting anything because the plan is not complete.

Ready, fire, aim—not planning at all.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe how to identify major deliverables.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

37

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 7.9

WBS Organization Examples
Project Phase Design Components/ Deliverables Work Function/ Department
Project Management Contract Foundation Framed House Project Management Kitchen Bedrooms Bathrooms Project Management Carpentry Plumbing Electrical

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide examples of WBS organization.

Presenter Notes

References

Exhibit 7.9: WBS Organization Examples.

38

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.4e Decompose Deliverables

Decomposition is breaking down into smaller and smaller pieces.

Brainstorm list of interim and final deliverables (use Post It® Notes).

Assemble deliverables on large workspace.

Organize deliverables into related groups.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe how to decompose deliverables.

Presenter Notes

The team members can use the top-down approach, asking what all the components of each major deliverable are.

Alternatively, the team members may use a bottom-up approach by brainstorming a list of both interim and final deliverables that need to be created.

References

n/a

39

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 7.10 (1 of 2)

Partial WBS of an Archeological Project
Code Deliverable
1.0 Project Management
2.0 Budget
3.0 Surface Survey
3.1 GIS/cartographic research
3.2 Previous data recompilation
3.3 Survey logistics
3.4 Data collection (Students: each student will be responsible for all data collected in their assigned routes as the correct gathering and updating of daily team data.)
4.0 Dig
4.1 Selection of dig areas
4.2 Stratigraphic registry
4.3 Dig and material handling
4.4 Photographic records

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an example of deliverables—broken down to the “right” size.

Presenter Notes

Once it is determined to be complete, the team can ask if the deliverables at the lowest level need to be divided further for planning and control.

References

Exhibit 7.10: Partial WBS of an Archeological Project.

Source: Rodrigo Villanova, PhD, author of Project Management for Archeology.

40

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 7.10 (2 of 2)

Partial WBS of an Archeological Project
Code Deliverable
5.0 Special Data Collection (Surface survey and drone handling)
5.1 Sample proposal
5.2 Sample collecting
5.3 Special analysis
6.0 Archaeological materials handling and storage
6.1 Inventory
6.2 Conservation efforts and storage
6.3 Lab analysis

Source: Rodrigo Villanova, PhD, author of Project Management for Archeology.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an example of deliverables—broken down to the “right” size.

Presenter Notes

Once it is determined to be complete, the team can ask if the deliverables at the lowest level need to be divided further for planning and control.

References

Exhibit 7.10: Partial WBS of an Archeological Project.

Source: Rodrigo Villanova, PhD, author of Project Management for Archeology.

41

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.4e Review

Ensure completeness

Consider parent-child concept

Have between three and nine child elements for each parent

Assign a unique name and number to each component

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe reviewing process.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

42

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 7.11 (1 of 2)

Library Project WBS with Components Numbered

Library Project

Project Management

Facility Needs

2.1 VISION STATEMENT

2.2 STAKEHOLDER INPUT

2.3 OPTIONS

Building Proposal

3.1 RECOMMENDED SIZE AND SCOPE

3.2 SITING

3.3 COST RATIONALE

Building Approval

4.1 VP OF FINANCE APPROVAL

4.2 PRESIDENT APPROVAL

4.3 BOARD APPROVAL

Staff Education

5.1 LITERATURE REVIEW

5.2 LIBRARY VISITS

5.3 SUPPLIER INPUT, PROCESS, OUTPUT, CUSTOMER ANALYSIS

5.4 TRAINING

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an example of a WBS with components numbered.

Presenter Notes

The team also assigns a unique number to each component. In one common numbering system, the number for a child item starts with the number assigned to its parent and an additional digit.

References

Exhibit 7.11: Library Project WBS with Components Numbered.

43

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 7.11 (2 of 2)

Fundraising

6.1 POTENTIAL DONOR LIST

6.2 RELATIONSHIP BUILDING WITH POTENTIAL DONORS

6.3 EDUCATION OF POTENTIAL DONORS

6.4 DONATIONS

6.5 FOLLOW-UP WITH DONORS

Building Documents

7.1 FACILITY AND SITE SPECIFICATIONS

7.2 SCHEMATIC DESIGNS

7.3 DEVELOPMENT PLANS

7.4 CONTRACT DOCUMENTS

Building Construction

8.1 ARCHITECT

8.2 CONTRACTORS

8.3 CONSTRUCTION

8.4 FURNISHINGS

Building Acceptance

9.1 BUILDING AND GROUNDS ACCEPTANCE

9.2 BUILDING OCCUPANCY

9.3 BUILDING DEDICATION

9.4 WARRANTY CORRECTIONS

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an example of a WBS with components numbered.

Presenter Notes

The team also assigns a unique number to each component. In one common numbering system, the number for a child item starts with the number assigned to its parent and an additional digit.

References

Exhibit 7.11: Library Project WBS with Components Numbered.

44

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 7.12

Stakeholder Analysis and WBS at the CIA

At the CIA, where I created and run our agency-wide project management training and certification program, I come in contact with large numbers of dedicated project managers. With enrollment averaging about 2,500 students per year, I encounter a workforce with a broad spectrum of experiences, skills, and expectations. One of the more prevalent expectations is associated with stakeholder analysis and communication; employees invariably feel that they pretty much know most or all they need to know in this area and may even begrudge somewhat the three days associated with our Project Communications Management course. What they discover are the shortcomings in their appreciation for and knowledge about project communications. Using a five-point Likert scale, we have every student perform a self-assessment of their communications proficiency prior to and after the class. To the students’ surprise, proficiency increases average a full point; student feedback virtually always includes statements to the effect that they didn’t realize just how much more effective they can be in project management by investing more in the project communications area.

The organizational chart plays a central role in how the CIA approaches the analysis of stakeholders. Employees learn through classroom exercises to use the organizational chart as a roadmap for identifying the stakeholders. As they march through the branches in this chart, they make conscious decisions about whether the function represented by the title or box on the chart or whether the individual performing that function is a stakeholder. Once they have identified the stakeholders and performed the associated stakeholder analysis, they then turn to the WBS to help with the planning and implementation of the communications tasks that follow. In fact, communications for the types of projects undertaken at the CIA have taken on such importance that we advocate it be placed at the first level of WBS decomposition alongside equally important components such as project management. For projects of sufficient size, a full-time leader is often assigned to the communications component; the scope of their duties includes communications within the project as well as communications outside the project.

Source: Michael O’Brochta, PMP, director, PPMC Program, CIA.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an example of a Stakeholder analysis and the WBS.

Presenter Notes

Different organizations develop their own unique variations of project planning and control techniques (as shown in this example), which combines Stakeholder analysis and the WBS.

References

Exhibit 7.12: Stakeholder Analysis and WBS at the CIA.

Source: Michael O’Brochta, PMP, director, PPMC Program, CIA.

45

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.5 Establish Change Control (1 of 2)

Change Control System/Baseline
Change Request/Change Request Form

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To list the components covered in “Establish Change Control” section.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

46

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.5 Establish Change Control (2 of 2)

Projects are conducted in an atmosphere of uncertainty.

Plans must be made to ensure all potential changes are considered, accepted, or rejected, and that their impact is factored into revised plans.

Change Control System is a system of managing and controlling changes and modifications to the project plan and project deliverables.

Baseline is the approved project plan, mostly consisting of scope, schedule, and cost; should not be altered without going through integrated change control system.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe how to establish change control.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

47

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.5 Change Request

Change Request is a written request or formal proposal to change any project planning component, such as a document, project deliverable, or the baseline (scope, cost, and time).

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To define a Change Request.

Presenter Notes

Document potential changes to a project with a Change Request.

Every change to a project must be formally proposed.

References

n/a

48

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 7.13

Change Request Form

Originator: Project #:
Date
Description of change:
Why needed:
Impact on project scope:
Impact on deadline dates:
Impact on budget:
Impact on quality:
Impact on risk:
Impact on team:
Date approved:
Project manager Sponsor Customer
_______________ _______________ _______________

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide a Change Request Form template.

Presenter Notes

Change Request forms typically include several sections.

The top section lists basic information to track the change request to the project and to the person who submitted it.

The second section contains two simple statements describing the change and the justification for the proposed change.

The third section details the anticipated impact on the project baseline from the potential change and this requires time and effort to assess these impacts.

This can vary in length from a simple check and comment section.

References

Exhibit 7.13: Change Request Form.

49

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.6 PMBOK Guide 7e

7.6a Team
7.6b Development Approach
7.6c Planning
7.6d Delivery
7.6e Measurement
7.6f Uncertainty

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To list the components covered in “PMBOK Guide 7e” section.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

50

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.6a Team

Teams must work productively with Stakeholders in spite of diversity and irrespective of virtual means of communication.

Within the team, it is desirable to have a safe, non-judgmental environment that provides transparency, integrity, respect, positive dialogue, support, and courage while working on scope planning.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe teams.

Presenter Notes

To develop an effective scope plan, it is essential that the project team work together with key stakeholders by establishing a culture of collaboration.

References

n/a

51

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.6b Development Approach

The key factor that differentiates predictive and adaptive development approaches is the uncertainty associated with requirements.

When uncertainty and risks are associated with defining requirements or volatility exists in requirements, an adaptive (incremental or iterative) development approach is preferred.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe development approach.

Presenter Notes

In a predictive approach, scope can be defined with less ambiguity at the start of the project.

References

n/a

52

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.6c Planning

In a predictive planning approach, it is possible to define high-level deliverables and then decompose them via a WBS down to an activity level.

When requirements are unclear, an adaptive approach is used for planning, and high-level themes or epics are used to develop features that are further decomposed into stories and backlog items.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe planning.

Presenter Notes

Deliverables influence scope planning.

This approach would reduce waste.

References

n/a

53

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7.6d Delivery

WBS is used in a predictive plan approach to define details in definite terms.

Themes are developed, When requirements are associated with uncertainty.

Epics may be decomposed into features that are sets of requirements.

User Story(ies) is a brief description of an outcome for a specific user.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe delivery.

Presenter Notes

Scope is the sum of all deliverables and work needed to produce them.

References

n/a

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7.6e Measurement

Baseline parameters are used in a predictive development approach for measurement.

Promised business value and benefits are measured in an adaptive approach (and these are becoming relevant for even the predictive approach).

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe measurement.

Presenter Notes

If scope planning identifies requirements unambiguously, completion of requirements can be assessed using acceptance criteria, technical performance measures, and “definition of done.”

References

n/a

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7.6f Uncertainty

Ambiguity, volatility, complexity, and risk are some of the factors which, if associated with requirements, would compel the project team to employ an adaptive approach.

In a predictive approach, aim to minimize uncertainty further with a detailed project plan and Risk Management plan.

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe measurement.

Presenter Notes

Uncertainty is associated with requirements can be a hindrance to developing an effective scope plan.

References

n/a

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7.7 Agile Projects (1 of 2)

Plan-Driven vs. Agile Methods
7.7a Agile Terms Used in Holistic Scope Planning
Set Up a WBS in MS Project

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To list the components covered in “Agile Projects” section.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

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7.7 Agile Projects (2 of 2)

The Agile team starts with the project Vision and then develops an understanding of customers and their desires.

Various Stakeholders may identify anything they want, and those items are added to a wish-list called a Product Backlog.

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe Agile Projects.

Presenter Notes

With Agile projects, the Project Manager is focused on providing value to customers quickly, maintaining flexibility to meet changing business needs, and adding new requirements identified by Stakeholders rather than on finalizing scope definition quickly.

Scope is not initially clear to either the project team or the client.

References

n/a

58

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Exhibit 7.14

Plan-Driven vs Agile Methods for Holistic Scope Planning

Holistic Scope Planning Questions Plan-Driven Agile
How are requirements defined? Extensive requirements early Emergent design using progressive elaboration
Who leads scoping? Project manager Product owner
How is work organized? Work breakdown structure Release and sprint backlogs
What is the most detailed output? Work package User stories based upon personas
How are changes handled? Baseline and change-control system Sprints after which a pivot or cancellation may occur

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To illustrate the plan-driven vs. Agile methods for holistic scope planning.

Presenter Notes

References

Exhibit 7.14: Plan-driven vs. Agile Methods for Holistic Scope Planning.

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7.7a Agile Terms Used in Holistic Scope Planning

Term Description
Simplicity Do what is needed and no more, take small simple steps, use the sheerest possible design to meet today’s requirement..
Extra Features Extras not used by the customer add cost and failure possibility.
Extra Processes Steps such as extra documentation or planning that add no value.
Progressive Elaboration First defining simply, then adding detail as needed.
Savage Summary The briefest description of an idea or tool to help people understand it.
Story Map Visual with product features on top and supporting detail below.
Release Backlog The work that is planned to be completed in the current release.
Sprint Backlog The work that is committed to be completed in the current sprint.
MoSCoW Prioritization technique of must, should, could, and will not have.
Persona Fictional username and description of expected user of deliverables.
User Story Need to be described by who wants it, how they will use it and why.
Definition of Ready Agreement that team understands a story enough to bring into a sprint.
Pivot Changing direction on next sprint based upon customer desires.

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To list Agile terms used in holistic scope planning.

Presenter Notes

References

Source: Anantatmula, V., and T. Kloppenborg, Be Agile Do Agile (New York, NY: Business Expert Press: 2021).

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Set Up a WBS in MS Project

Setting up a WBS in MS Project has five basic steps:

1. Understand the WBS definitions and displays.

2. Enter project deliverable and work package elements.

3. Create the outline of your WBS.

4. Insert a WBS code identification column.

5. Hide (or show) the desired amount of detail in the WBS.

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To list the five basic steps in setting up a WBS in MS Project.

Presenter Notes

The WBS is one of the most important and powerful project planning tools available to the Project Manager.

It is one of the key building blocks on which all further project activities are based.

By creating a WBS in MS Project, the Project Manager lays the foundation for automating many other planning and communication tools the software has to offer.

References

n/a

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Step 1: Understand the WBS Definitions and Displays

Summary tasks are the main or interim WBS deliverables and are displayed in bold font.

Subtasks are all the tasks that make up the deliverables (work packages) and are indented below their parent summary task.

WBS tasks can also be viewed in Gantt views with different graphical shapes:

For instance, a summary task might also be a milestone that you would want to denote graphically in your Gantt chart (typically a diamond in MS Project).

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To understand the WBS definitions and displays.

Presenter Notes

You will see these graphical representations in future tutorials.

References

n/a

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©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 7.16

Source: Microsoft product screenshots reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To understand the WBS definitions and displays.

Presenter Notes

MS Project refers to WBS task elements as summary tasks, tasks, and subtasks and displays them in an indented outline table format.

References

Exhibit 7.16: Enter Summaries (Deliverables).

Source: Microsoft product screenshots reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.

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Step 2: Enter WBS Elements (Tasks)

In the Task Name field, select the row below where you want the new row to be (after making your selection, holding the SHIFT key and selecting a different row will highlight all rows between the two selections and result in that number of blank rows being inserted in the next step).

Click Task Tab>>Insert Group>>Task. a. Alternatively, you can Right-Click>>Insert Task.

You will see a new row (or rows if you added multiple) with the words in the Task Name field. Click on and enter the name of the desired WBS element (you may have to delete before typing in your new task name).

Repeat these processes as needed to enter additional tasks between the Suburban Park Homes milestones until your WBS looks like Exhibit 7.16.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe how to enter WBS elements (tasks).

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

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Exhibit 7.17

Source: Microsoft product screenshots reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To illustrate features WBS task elements added from Suburban Homes project milestone list.

Presenter Notes

In this WBS example, the existing milestones will double as the main deliverables (summary tasks).

References

Exhibit 7.17: Indent and Outdent Controls on the Task Tab.

Source: Microsoft product screenshots reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.

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Step 3: Create the Outline for Your WBS

Click the Task Name field of the row to be indented.

Task Tab>>Schedule Group>>Indent Task (right Green Arrow). a. The task element above the indented task(s) becomes a summary row as indicated by bold font. b. Indenting a summary row will also indent its lower-level items. c. Multiple rows under a summary row can be indented (or outdented) at the same time by Shift-Click selecting all of them before clicking the Indent control.

Clicking Task Tab>>Schedule Group>>Outdent Task (left Green Arrow) will similarly decrease the indentation of the selected row(s) or summary task.

Indent to create deliverables, interim deliverables, and work packages until your WBS resembles the outline shown in Exhibit 7.16.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe how to create the outline for your WBS.

Presenter Notes

You now need to set up the outline structure of the WBS to show summary tasks and subtasks (deliverables, interim deliverables, and work packages). To do this, use the Indent and Outdent controls shown in Exhibit 7.18 (Task Tab>>Schedule Group>>Green Arrows).

References

n/a

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©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 7.18

Source: Microsoft Corporation.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To illustrate how to insert selected WBS column.

Presenter Notes

References

Exhibit 7.18: Ready to Insert Selected WBS Column.

Source: Microsoft product screenshots reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.

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Step 4: Insert WBS Code Identifier Column

Right-click the Task Name column heading and click Insert Column.

A drop-down list appears in a new column.

From the drop-down list, choose WBS, as shown in Exhibit 7.19.

A WBS code column is now in place.

Resize the column to conserve space.

Right-click the Task Mode column heading and click Hide Column.

Your result should look like Exhibit 7.20.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe how to insert WBS code identifier column.

Presenter Notes

MS Project can automatically assign identifier codes to all your WBS tasks.

WBS codes allow the Project Team to easily categorize and communicate information about project tasks in the WBS.

In this example, WBS codes will be assigned in a new column to the left of the Task Name column.

References

n/a

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Exhibit 7.19

Source: Microsoft product screenshots reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To illustrate how to insert a WBS column.

Presenter Notes

References

Exhibit 7.19: WBS Column Inserted.

Source: Microsoft product screenshots reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.

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Step 5: Hide (or Show) Subtasks Detail

Click the tiny triangle before the task name of any summary task to hide underlying detail (all details will be “rolled-up” under the summary task).

Click the tiny triangle again to show underlying detail (all details “un-roll” under the summary task and are again visible).

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe how to hide or show subtasks detail.

Presenter Notes

Some Stakeholders will not want or need to see the lower levels of WBS detail (particularly in large, complex projects with lots of WBS detail).

You can easily “roll-up” (or “un-roll”) subtasks underneath their parent summary task to hide (or show) detail.

References

n/a

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Exhibit 7.20

Source: Microsoft Corporation.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To illustrate how to hide or show underlying detail.

Presenter Notes

In Exhibit 7.20, the underlying detail for the “Land preparation, landscape, and foundation” deliverable and the “Framing” interim deliverable summaries has been hidden.

References

Exhibit 7.20: Hide or Show Underlying Detail.

Source: Microsoft product screenshots reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.

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Summary

Use scope planning to determine deliverables and acceptance criteria.

Organize scope into a work breakdown structure (WBS).

Decompose the project into smaller and smaller pieces.

Assign WBS components.

Create WBS by hand or use MS Project to create WBS.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide a high-level summary of this chapter.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

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,

Chapter 8

Scheduling Projects

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

‹#›

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To introduce the chapter.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

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©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Icebreaker

What are two things you learned from Scope Planning?

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To engage participants in the content of this chapter.

Presenter Notes

References

Pressmaster/Shutterstock.com

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Scheduling Projects (1 of 2)

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an illustration of the scheduling projects process.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

3

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Scheduling Projects (2 of 2)

Overview of the Book
8.1 Plan Schedule Management
8.2 Purposes of a Project Schedule
8.3 Historical Development of Project Schedules
8.4 How Project Schedules Are Limited and Created
8.5 Define Activities
8.6 Sequence Activities
8.7 Estimate Activity Duration
8.8 Develop Project Schedules
8.9 Uncertainty in Project Schedules
8.10 Show the Project Schedule on a Gantt Chart
8.11 PMBOK Guide 7e
8.12 Schedules for Agile Projects
8.13 Using Microsoft Project for Critical Path Schedules
8.14 Summary

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To list the components covered in “Scheduling Projects” chapter.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

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Core Objectives

8-1 Identify limitations of a project’s schedule and discuss ways to manage them.

8-2 Learn the activity on node (AON) method to develop a project schedule.

8-3 Identify potential problems in estimating time accurately and how to overcome them.

8-4 Create a project schedule on a Gantt chart by hand, showing the critical path and all float.

8-5 Describe ways to adjust a project’s sequence logic using leads, lags, and alternative dependencies.

8-6 Build and display the critical path and all float for each activity using MS Project.

8-7 Resolve potential scheduling conflicts.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe the Core Objectives.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

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Agile Objectives

8-8 Describe the process of determining the size of a story.

8-9 Explain the product owner’s process of prioritizing work based on value and risk.

8-10 Discuss how a team decides what work it will commit for an iteration.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe the Agile Objectives.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

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8.1 Plan Schedule Management

Plan Schedule Management
Project Time Management Processes

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To list the components covered in “Plan Schedule Management” section.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

7

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Project Time Management Processes

Plan schedule management

Define activities

Sequence activities

Estimate activity resources

Estimate activity durations

Develop schedule

Control schedule

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To list the project time management processes.

Presenter Notes

A Project Manager and team usually develop as much of the schedule as they can be based upon the information in the work breakdown structure (WBS).

An activity is a unique and distinct part of work with a duration greater than zero time period, which is scheduled to be performed during the course of a project.

References

n/a

8

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

8.2 Purposes of a Project Schedule

Questions to Answer

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To list the components covered in “Purposes of a Project Schedule” section.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

9

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Typical Questions to Answer in Developing a Project Schedule

When will the project be complete?

What is the earliest date a particular activity can start, and when will it end?

What activity must be complete before an activity can start?

What would happen if the delivery of material is late?

Can a key worker take a week of vacation when his/her activity is in progress?

If a person is assigned to do two activities, which one must be done first?

How many hours do we need from each worker next week or month?

Which worker or other resource creates a bottleneck that can halt or delay our project?

What will the impact be if the client wants to add an additional module?

If the client is willing to spend an extra $10,000, how much faster can the project be completed?

Are all of the activities that should have been completed by now actually completed?

How many resources are required for the project, and are they available?

How much time and effort are required from each resource? • What time constraints are the project likely to encounter?

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide examples of questions to ask when creating a project schedule.

Presenter Notes

Projects are undertaken to accomplish important business purposes, and people often want to use the project results as early as possible.

The development of a project schedule is designed to address all these questions, and the final schedule provides answers to all of them.

References

n/a

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©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

8.3 Historical Development of Project Schedules

Historical Background
Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)

‹#›

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Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To list the components covered in “Historical Development of Project Schedules” section.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

11

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Historical Background

In the 1950s, two project scheduling methods were developed:

Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)

PERT was developed in the Navy’s Special Program Office and proven to be useful in research and development projects involving individual activities that are hard to estimate precisely.

Critical Path Method (CPM)

A method used to estimate the minimum project duration and determine the amount of schedule flexibility on the network paths within the schedule model.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe the history of the development of schedules.

Presenter Notes

Throughout history, projects have been performed, but many early projects such as cathedrals in Europe took decades or longer to complete.

As competition drove the need for more rapid completion, systematic methods were developed for scheduling projects.

Both CPM and PERT were founded on the concepts of identifying activities, determining their logical order, and estimating the duration for each.

CPM was developed by the Engineering Services Division of DuPont in their effort to plan large projects such as building and refurbishing enormous plants.

CPM assessed the time for each activity using a single-time estimate.

The focus was on understanding the longest sequence of activities, which determined how long the project would take.

References

n/a

12

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Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)

The more commonly used method of displaying work activities is called Activity on Node (AON) or the Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM).

AON (or PDM) represents scheduled activities with nodes and connects each activity to one or more other activities with logical relationships or sequences of performance from left to right.

The arrow denotes the predecessor–successor relationship only, and the length of the arrow does not mean anything.

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Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To explain the PERT and CDM methods.

Presenter Notes

PERT and CPM originally used a method for displaying the work activities in a network diagram called activity on arrow (AOA) or arrow diagramming method (ADM), in which schedule activities are represented by arrows and connected at points called nodes.

References

n/a

13

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Exhibit 8.1

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Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an example of an “Activity On Node” schedule format.

Presenter Notes

References

Exhibit 8.1: AON Format Schedule Example.

14

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8.4 How Project Schedules Are Limited and Created

Five Factors of Schedule Constraints
Common Method for Developing a Schedule

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Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To list the components covered in “How Project Schedules Are Limited and Created” section.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

15

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Five Factors That Limit Schedule Creation

Logical order

Activity duration

Resource availability

Imposed dates

Cash flow

‹#›

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Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe the five factors that limit how fast a project can be completed.

Presenter Notes

The first factor is the logical order in which activities need to be completed. For example, one needs to dig a hole before cement can be poured into it. This is covered in the section on sequencing activities.

The second factor is how long each activity will take to complete. This is discussed in the section on estimating activity duration. It includes methods for estimating durations, problems with estimates, and remedies to those problems.

The third factor is how many key resources are available at specific times in the project. For example, if six rooms were available to be painted at the same time, and fewer than six painters were available, progress would be slower. This is discussed in Chapter 9 in the section on resource availability.

The fourth factor is imposed dates. For example, a project working on a government contract may not be able to start until the government’s new fiscal year, which starts on October 1.

The fifth and final factor is cash flow. Projects may not start until the budget is approved, but progress may also be slowed until enough revenue arrives to cover expenses. This is covered in Chapter 10.

References

n/a

16

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Common Method for Creating a Schedule

Identify all activities.

Determine logical order.

Estimate time required for that activity.

Assign resources to each activity.

Compare schedule with imposed dates.

Consider project budget and cash flow, quality demands, and risk factors.

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Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide a high-level outline of activities to create a project schedule.

Presenter Notes

Before agreeing, the Project Manager must first understand what makes sense in terms of a schedule before they are in a position to know whether to accept a Sponsor’s suggestion or to discuss why it may be impractical.

A Project Manager has the ethical responsibility to determine a schedule that is possible to achieve, persuade all Stakeholders that the schedule makes sense, and then see to it that the project is delivered according to that agreed-upon schedule.

References

n/a

17

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The Project Manager’s Responsibility

Resist pressure to dictate a schedule.

Determine a schedule that is possible.

Persuade Stakeholders that the schedule makes sense.

Deliver project according to the agreed-upon schedule.

Within each iteration, team considers level of uncertainty and complexity with desired outcomes.

Number of team members as resources is often primary limitation.

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To outline some of the Project Manager’s responsibility in creating a project schedule.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

18

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8.5 Define Activities

Define Activities
List Project Milestones

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Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To list the components covered in “Define Activities” section.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

19

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Define Activities

“What work activities must be completed to create each of these lowest level project deliverables?”

The first process in developing a project schedule is to define all of the work activities.

The bottom level of a WBS represents the work packages or the lowest-level deliverables.

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an example of a list of activities for a project.

Presenter Notes

As teams define activities, they need to be careful not to omit any work elements.

It is a good idea to have someone on your project team play devil’s advocate to challenge the team to identify additional activities.

It is better to identify activities that need not be accomplished than to forget activities that will have to be added later.

The team may think all of the activities have been identified after the initial planning; however, when the activity sequencing is performed, it may become obvious that some activities have been forgotten or not considered.

It is better to discover a missing activity in this phase of planning than after the schedule is approved.

Newly added activities, after the final schedule is approved, will increase time and cost to the project, driving it over budget and delaying the schedule.

References

n/a

20

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 8.2

Work Breakdown Structure with Deliverables Only

COLLEGE FUNDRAISER PROJECT

Project Management

Location

Promotion

Entertainment

Safety

Parking

Food

Sanitation

Volunteers

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To show an example of a WBS with deliverables identified by numbers 1 through 9.

Presenter Notes

References

Exhibit 8.2: Work Breakdown Structure with Deliverables Only.

21

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 8.3 (1 of 2)

Work Breakdown Structure with Activity List Added

COLLEGE FUNDRAISER PROJECT

Project Management

Location

2.1 CONTACT UNIVERSITY FOR PERMISSION

2.2 DETERMINE IDEAL LOCATION TO MEET CAPACITY

2.3 DETERMINE CONTINGENCY PLAN IN CASE OF INCLEMENT WEATHER

Promotion

3.1 PROVIDE TEAM INFORMATION

3.2 PRODUCE PRE-EVENT ADVERTISEMENTS

3.3 DISPLAY WELCOME SIGNS AT ALL ENTRANCES

3.4 SET UP SIGN-IN TABLE

3.5 DISPLAY SIGNS WITH RULES

Entertainment

4.1 FIND INFORMATION ABOUT LOCAL NOISE ORDINANCES

4.2 CONTACT LOCAL BANDS

4.3 SET UP STAGE, SPEAKERS, FUN BOOTHS

Safety

5.1 DETERMINE LIGHTING NEEDS

5.2 CONTACT LOCAL FIRE DEPARTMENT (EMS)

5.3 CONTACT LOCAL POLICE DEPARTMENT

5.4 OBTAIN PERMISSION TO USE WALKIE-TALKIES

5.5 SET UP FIRST-AID BOOTH

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To show the same work breakdown structure example with the activities required to create the deliverables listed.

Presenter Notes

References

Exhibit 8.3: Work Breakdown Structure with Activity List Added.

22

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 8.3 (2 of 2)

Parking

6.1 FIND ADEQUATE LOTS TO ACCOMMODATE CAPACITY

6.2 COORDINATE SHUTTLE SERVICE FROM LOTS TO SITE

6.3 RESERVE SPECIAL PLACES FOR HANDICAPPED

Food

7.1 CONTACT FOOD/BEVERAGE VENDORS FOR CONCESSIONS

7.2 MAKE GOODIE BAGS FOR CHILDREN

7.3 ORDER SUFFICIENT DRINKING WATER

Sanitation

8.1 PROVIDE TRASH RECEPTACLES

8.2 PROVIDE ADEQUATE NUMBER OF PORTA-JOHNS

8.3 COORDINATE POST-EVENT CLEAN-UP

8.4 PURCHASE PAPER PRODUCTS AND SOAP

8.5 PROVIDE WASHBASINS

Volunteers

9.1 RECRUIT VOLUNTEERS

9.2 PRODUCE A MASTER VOLUNTEER ASSIGNMENT LIST

9.3 MAKE NAME TAGS FOR ALL VOLUNTEERS

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To show the same work breakdown structure example with the activities required to create the deliverables listed.

Presenter Notes

References

Exhibit 8.3: Work Breakdown Structure with Activity List Added.

23

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 8.4

Work Breakdown Structure with Milestone List

COLLEGE FUNDRAISER PROJECT

Project Management

Location

2.4 LOCATION CONFIRMED

PROMOTION

3.1 PROVIDE TEAM INFORMATION

3.2 PRODUCE PRE-EVENT ADVERTISEMENTS

3.3 DISPLAY WELCOME SIGNS AT ALL ENTRANCES

3.4 SET UP SIGN-IN TABLE

3.5 DISPLAY SIGNS WITH RULES

3.6 PROMOTION FINALIZED

Entertainment

4.4 BAND CONTRACT SIGNED

4.5 ENTERTAINMENT ARRANGED

Safety

5.6 SAFETY REQUIREMENTS COMPLETED

Parking

6.4 ALL PARKING NEEDS ARRANGED

Food

7.4 FOOD AND BEVERAGES READIED

Sanitation

8.6 ALL SANITATION NEEDS IN PLACE

Volunteers

9.4 VOLUNTEERS PREPARED

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an example of a Work Breakdown Structure with Milestones.

Presenter Notes

Note that the line numbers assigned to the milestones are one greater than the line numbers of the activities that must be completed for each milestone.

For example, the milestone “Promotion finalized” (item 3.6) represents the point in time that all of the promotion-related activities (items 3.1 through 3.5) are completed.

For clarity, items 3.1 through 3.5 have been imported from Exhibit 8.3 and set in a lighter font.

Notice also that the verb choice on the milestones is past tense, such as “confirmed,” “finalized,” and so on. This indicates that the activities leading up to each milestone must be complete.

References

Exhibit 8.4: Work Breakdown Structure with Milestone List.

24

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

8.6 Sequence Activities

Predecessors and Successors
8.6a Leads and Lags
8.6b Alternative Dependencies

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To list the components covered in “Sequence Activities” section.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

25

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

8.6 Predecessors and Successors

Predecessor activity

activity that logically precedes another activity or activities.

Successor activity

an activity that logically follows another activity or activities.

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe predecessor and successor activities.

Presenter Notes

Once the activities have been identified, it is time to determine the logical order in which they can be accomplished.

This process is called sequence activities, and it entails determining the predecessor and successor relationships among the project activities.

This sequencing activity is routinely developed and performed in traditional (plan-driven) projects for the entire project and developed for each iteration of Agile projects

References

n/a

26

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Dependency Types

Place a successor activity after its predecessor.

Draw arrow to show the relationship.

Continue until all activities have been placed on the work surface.

Dependencies can be mandatory or discretionary.

Mandatory dependency logical relationship that must be followed (generally due to physical or contractual demands).

Discretionary dependency a preferred logical relationship, based on best practices and judgment.

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Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide guidelines for dependency relationships.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

27

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 8.5

Activity List for Product Upgrade Project

Determine product features

Acquire prototype materials

Produce prototype

Design marketing campaign

Design graphics

Conduct marketing

Perform sales calls

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an example of an activity list for a product upgrade project.

Presenter Notes

References

Exhibit 8.5: Activity List for Product Upgrade Project.

28

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Exhibit 8.6

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an example of a network for a product upgrade project.

Presenter Notes

References

Exhibit 8.6: Network for Product Upgrade Project.

29

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8.6a Leads and Lags

Lead “a modification of a logical relationship that allows an acceleration of the successor activity.”

Lag “a modification of a logical relationship that directs a delay in the successor activity.”

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To define and describe “Lead” and “Lags” in a project schedule.

Presenter Notes

Leads are helpful if a project needs to be completed quickly.

References

Source: Practice Standard for Scheduling (PMI).

30

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8.6b Alternative Dependencies

RELATIONSHIP DESCRIPTION
Finish-to-start (FS), “a logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot start until a predecessor activity has finished.”
Finish-to-finish (FF) “the logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has finished.” For example, perhaps the graphics could be designed while the marketing campaign is being designed but could not be completed until the marketing campaign is completed.”
Start-to-start (SS) “a logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot start until a predecessor activity has started.” For example, perhaps the graphics design could not start until the design marketing campaign started.”
Start-to-finish (SF) “a logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has started.” This is the least used relationship. An example is for a project to replace an old system where the new capability must be started before the old one is completely discontinued.”

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe other types of relationships besides finish-to-start (FS).

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

31

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8.7 Estimate Activity Duration

Creating Good Estimates
8.7a Problems and Remedies in Duration Estimating
8.7b Learning Curves

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Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To list the components covered in “Estimate Activity Duration” section.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

32

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Creating Good Estimates

Use a WBS that is complete to understand deliverables.

Exclude any activity that is not part of the WBS in the estimate.

Identify each activity clearly.

Include appropriate contingencies.

Use relevant and sufficient data.

Consider input from all relevant stakeholders, including subject matter experts (SMEs) in making estimates.

Conduct an independent review.

Revise the estimate if there is a major project change.

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide a list of suggestions for creating good estimates.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

33

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 8.7

Activity Duration Estimate Example

Time Estimate in Workdays Activity Name
5 Determine new product features
20 Acquire prototype materials
10 Produce prototype
10 Design marketing campaign
10 Design graphics
30 Conduct marketing
25 Perform sales calls

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an example of duration estimating.

Presenter Notes

References

Exhibit 8.7: Activity Duration Estimate Example.

34

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Exhibit 8.8

Suggestions for Creating Realistic Time Estimates

Verify all time estimates with the people who are doing the work. Or, even better, have the people doing the work provide the initial estimates of the activity completion time.

Estimate times of completion of work without initial reference to a calendar. Just consider how long you believe each activity will take under normal working conditions.

Make sure all time units are identical: hours, workdays, work weeks, months (consider time off for company holidays), etc.

Some people tend to estimate optimistically. Keep in mind the following time constraints:

Unexpected meetings

Learning curves

Competing priorities

Vacation

Resources or information not available on time

Inaccuracy in work instructions

Interruptions

Emergencies and illness

Rework

Uncertainties or unknowns

Contrary to point 4, some people estimate pessimistically in order to look good when they finish their project or activities under budget and/or ahead of schedule. Try to develop an understanding of the estimator’s experience along with their optimistic or pessimistic tendencies, and try to encourage realistic estimates.

Don’t initially worry about who is going to do the work, and don’t worry about the mandatory deadline. Figure out a realistic estimate first, and then figure out what to eliminate later.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide suggestions for creating realistic time estimates.

Presenter Notes

References

Exhibit 8.8: Suggestions for Creating Realistic Time Estimates.

35

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 8.9

Activity Duration Estimating Problems and Remedies

Potential Activity Duration Estimating Problem Remedy Chapter
Omissions Refining scope and WBS Checklists, templates, devil’s advocate Lessons learned 7 8 15
General uncertainty in the estimate Rolling wave planning Reverse phase schedule Learning curve Identify and reduce sources of uncertainty Manage schedule aggressively 7 9 8 11, 12 14
Special cause variation Risk analysis Resolve risk events 3, 11 14
Common cause variation PERT Monte Carlo Project buffer 8 8 9
Merging (multiple predecessors) Milestones Reverse phase schedule Feeding buffer Manage float 3, 8 9 9 14
Queuing Staggering project start dates Resource leveling Resource buffer 2 9 9
Multitasking Prioritizing projects Carefully authorize start of noncritical activities 2 9, 14
Student syndrome (starting late) Float Critical path meetings 8 14
Not reporting early completion of rework Project culture Project communications Contract incentives Project leadership Progress reporting 4 6 13 5 14

Source: Adapted from Larry Leach, “Schedule and Cost Buffer Sizing: How to Account for the Bias between Project Performance and Your Model,” Project Management Journal 34 (2) (June 2003): 44.

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide a list of potential problems and remedies.

Presenter Notes

Many factors can impact the accuracy of activity duration estimates.

References

Exhibit 8.9: Activity Duration Estimating Problems and Remedies.

36

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

8.7b Learning Curves (1 of 2)

The more times someone performs an activity, the better and faster he or she becomes.

Rate of improvement can be studied and predicted.

Rapid learning leads to faster performance times.

PMs should plan for the amount of learning that takes place.

PMs should sustain an environment that expects rapid learning.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe learning curves.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

37

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 8.10

Learning Curve Table

Activity 60% 70% 80% 90%
1 100 100 100 100
2 60 70 80 90
4 36 49 64 81
8 21.6 34.3 51.2 72.9

Time calculated is based upon a rate of improvement.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an example of a learning curve table.

Presenter Notes

The rate of improvement can vary widely depending on many factors, such as:

the culture of the organization stresses continual improvement.

skill involved in the activity.

complexity of the activity.

the activity depends on the worker versus dictated by the pace of a machine.

frequent job rotation.

References

Exhibit 8.10: Learning Curve Table.

38

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

8.7b Learning Curves (2 of 2)

Velocity “the sum of the estimates of delivered (i.e., accepted) features per iteration … measured in the same units as feature estimates whether this is story points, days, ideal days, or hours that the team delivers.”

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe learning curves.

Presenter Notes

Duration estimates improve as early iterations are completed.

Estimate is for velocity.

References

Source: https://www.versionone.com/agile-101/agile-management-practices/agile-scrum-velocity/.

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8.8 Develop Project Schedules

8.8a Two-Pass Method
8.8b Enumeration Method

‹#›

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Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To list the components covered in “Develop Project Schedules” section.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

40

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Develop Project Schedules

Identify the critical path

Determines project’s earliest possible end date.

Most critical in terms of time.

Methods for determining critical path: Two-Pass Method and the Enumeration Method.

Critical path “the sequence of schedule activities determining the duration of the project. Generally, it is the longest path through the project.”

– Practice Standard for Scheduling (PMI)

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Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To explain critical path (on the schedule) and providing standard ways to identify the critical path.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

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8.8a Two-Pass Method

Used to determine amount of slack each activity has.

Make two logical passes through the constructed network:

The forward pass is “a critical path method technique for calculating the early start and early finish dates by working forward through the schedule model from the project start date or a given point of time.”

The backward pass is “a critical path technique for calculating the late start and late finish dates by working backward through the schedule model from the project end date.”

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe the Two-Pass Method for constructing a network.

Presenter Notes

The two-pass method is used to determine the amount of slack or float each activity has, which is defined and explained through this method.

To perform this method, two logical passes should be made through the network.

References

n/a

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Exhibit 8.11

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an example of two-pass schedule set up.

Presenter Notes

“Determine new product features,” for example, has an early start time of zero since it can begin as soon as the project is authorized.

Often, when calculating the schedule by hand, a team starts at date zero. In other words, the first activity can begin after zero days.

References

Exhibit 8.11: Two-Pass Example Schedule Set Up.

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Exhibit 8.12

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an example of the first pass (complete).

Presenter Notes

The first pass is then used to calculate the early finish, which is the early start plus the estimated duration (ES + Duration = EF). In this case, 0 + 5 = 5 means the activity “Determine new product features” can be completed after five days.

The zero for the first activity means it can start after zero days—meaning at the beginning of the first day.

Each activity that is a successor can start as soon as its predecessor activity is complete.

Therefore, the next two activities can each start after five days. (That means at the start of the sixth day.)

To calculate the early finish for each of these activities, add its duration to the early start of five, for early completion times of twenty-five and fifteen, respectively.

The difficult part of calculating the first pass comes when an activity has more than one predecessor.

For example, “Perform sales calls” cannot begin until all three preceding activities (“Produce prototypes,” “Design graphics,” and “Conduct marketing”) are complete.

Therefore, its early start is forty-five.

This is true even though “Produce prototypes” and “Design graphics” have earlier finish times, because “Conduct marketing” cannot be completed until day forty-five.

The later time is always taken.

References

Exhibit 8.12: Schedule Example First Pass Complete.

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Exhibit 8.13

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an example of a second pass schedule complete.

Presenter Notes

In other words, calculate the late start by subtracting the duration from the late finish (LF – duration = LS).

The confusing part of calculating the second pass is when there is more than one successor.

In Exhibit 8.13, one place this occurs is at the first activity, “Determine new product features,” since two activities are immediate successors.

Enough time must be left for all of the successors, so whichever one must start soonest dictates the late finish date of the predecessor.

In this example, “Design marketing campaign” must start no later than after day 5; therefore, five days is the late finish for the first activity.

References

Exhibit 8.13: Schedule Example Second Pass Complete.

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Exhibit 8.14

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an example of two-pass complete schedule.

Presenter Notes

Calculate the late start by subtracting the duration from the late finish (LF – duration = LS). The confusing part of calculating the second pass is when there is more than one successor.

In Exhibit 8.13, one place this occurs is at the first activity, “Determine new product features,” since two activities are immediate successors.

Enough time must be left for all of the successors, so whichever one must start soonest dictates the late finish date of the predecessor.

In this example, “Design marketing campaign” must start no later than after day 5; therefore, five days is the late finish for the first activity.

References

Exhibit 8.14: Two-Pass Complete Schedule Example.

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8.8a Float and the Critical Path

Total float “the amount of time a schedule activity may be delayed from its early start date without delaying the project end date.”

Free float “the amount of time a schedule activity can be delayed without delaying the early start of immediately following schedule activities.”

Compute the critical path based on float (slack).

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To explain float and the critical path.

Presenter Notes

Activities with no/very little float need to be scheduled very carefully.

References

n/a

47

©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 8.15

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an example of an enumeration method schedule.

Presenter Notes

The second method of determining the critical path is the enumeration method.

To complete this, we list or enumerate all of the paths through the network.

The advantage of this method is that since all of the paths are identified and timed if a team needs to compress the project schedule, they will know both the critical path and the other paths that may be nearly critical (or those with very little float).

It is imperative to keep track of both critical and near-critical paths when compressing a schedule.

In Exhibit 8.15, three paths are identified, and the total duration for each is calculated.

ADFG is the critical path, with an expected duration of seventy days, just as was determined with the two-pass method.

We also know that path ABCG is expected to take sixty days (ten fewer than the critical path), and path ADEG is expected to take fifty days (twenty fewer than the critical path).

References

Exhibit 8.15: Enumeration Method Example Schedule.

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8.9 Uncertainty in Project Schedules

8.9a Program Evaluation and Review Technique
8.9b Monte Carlo Simulation

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To list the components covered in “Uncertainty in Project Schedules” section.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

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Uncertainty in Project Schedules

Construct the best possible schedule.

Manage the project very closely.

OR

Estimate a range of possible times each individual activity may take.

Examine the impact of each activity on the entire schedule.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide guidelines for constructing projects schedules amid uncertainty.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

50

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8.9a Program Evaluation and Review Technique

How does variability in duration of individual activities impact the entire project schedule?

Sequence activities into a network.

Create three estimates of time to complete each activity.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide the formula for calculating the PERT technique.

Presenter Notes

PERT involves challenges.

First, it is often hard enough to create one estimate of how long an activity will take, so it takes even more effort (and therefore money) to create three estimates.

Second, there is no guarantee of how good any of the three estimates can be. In other words, it is not necessarily the case that a three-point estimate would be more accurate than a single duration estimate.

Third, PERT can underestimate the risk of a schedule running long because it does not accurately address when two or more activities need to be completed before a third one can begin.

PERT is useful for Project Managers as it attempts to eliminate uncertainty in activity duration and the total duration of a project.

References

n/a

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Exhibit 8.16

PERT Time Estimate Example

Activity Optimistic Most Likely Pessimistic Expected
Determine new product features 4 5 12 6
Acquire prototype Materials 16 20 30 21
Produce prototype 8 10 12 10
Design marketing campaign 9 10 14 10.5
Design graphics 6 10 20 11
Conduct marketing 28 30 50 33
Perform sales calls 20 25 30 25

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide and example of the PERT time estimating technique.

Presenter Notes

Some project managers informally use three-time estimates for a few key activities on the critical path to get a sense of the amount of uncertainty and to better understand the activities that demand close monitoring.

Other Project Managers who prefer to understand the potential variations use Monte Carlo simulation.

Project management students and professionals need to be aware that both PERT and Monte Carlo simulations are used to help understand uncertainty in project schedules.

References

Exhibit 8.16: PERT Time Estimate Example.

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8.9a PERT Considerations

Advantages

Reinforces uncertainty that exists in project schedules.

Calculations often indicate expected time is longer than “most likely” time.

Difficulties

Takes more effort to create three estimates.

No guarantee how good the estimates are.

May underestimate the risk of a schedule running long.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide the advantages and disadvantages of the PERT technique.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

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Project Managers and PERT

Infrequently used by Project Managers.

PMs may informally use three time estimates for key activities.

PMs may use Monte Carlo simulation instead.

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe the relationship between Project Managers and PERT.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

54

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8.9b Monte Carlo Simulation (1 of 2)

Monte Carlo Analysis is “a computerized mathematical technique that allows people to account for risk in quantitative analysis and decision making that furnishes the decision maker with a range of possible outcomes and the probabilities with which they will occur.”

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Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To define Monte Carlo simulation and analysis.

Presenter Notes

An entire range of possible time estimates can be used for any activity.

Project schedule is calculated many times (1,000+).

Estimates for a particular activity are based on likelihood of various times as determined by PM.

References

Source: Practice Standard for Scheduling (PMI).

55

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8.9b Monte Carlo Simulation (2 of 2)

Advantages

Flexibility allows more realistic estimates.

Extent of information provided.

Disadvantages

Time requirement.

Software and skill required.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide the advantages and disadvantages of Monte Carlo simulation.

Presenter Notes

Computer output is how often the project would be expected to take each possible length of time.

PMs decide when this specialized technique is worth the extra effort to the project.

References

n/a

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©2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 8.17

New Product Development Schedule in China Example

Week one—Request is received from the customer for a product that is darker than anything we have in our current offering. Our sales manager forwards the request to our VP of Sales and our R&D department. A quick review of the potential price versus the cost of materials is completed by the VP of Sales (with finance input), and the product is deemed saleable at an acceptable margin.

Week two—A trial cook in our “baby cooker” is conducted by our R&D department. Within two attempts, a product that is within the customer-requested specs is produced. An additional trial is conducted to quickly check repeatability. The trial product is express shipped to the customer and our China facility for comparison purposes.

Week three—The formulation and related instructions for cooking are communicated to our China operations with a “red sheet” process. China has anticipated the receipt of this red sheet and can schedule time in production within a week.

Week four—The initial red sheet production is successful and passes the specification tests in China and Louisville.

Week five—Customer confirms purchase order and the first shipment is sent. The product contributes significantly to the revenues and profitability of the China facility. Success!

Key factors—Strong communication between all the players and a clear understanding of the customer expectations upfront.

Source: Elaine Gravatte, D. D. Williamson.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide examples of an R&D project schedule.

Presenter Notes

A project schedule used by D. D. Williamson of Louisville, Kentucky, when a Chinese customer asked it to develop a new product somewhat different from any it had previously developed.

Once D. D. Williamson decided to take the job, it developed and communicated the project schedule to all Stakeholders both in its company and the customer’s company within the first week.

References

Exhibit 8.17: New Product Development Schedule in China Example.

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Exhibit 8.18

Initiatives to Improve On-Time Schedule Delivery

Cause of Late Delivery Initiative Explanation
Activity variance Increase activity transparency Allows for better planning
Increase user participation Ensures that the product delivered meets the users’ needs
Reduce project size Ensures that estimates for tasks are more accurate
Manage expectations, e.g., set realistic goals by drawing from “outside views” Mitigates optimism bias and misrepresentation
Use packaged software Provides a standard within which to develop the system
Activity dependence De-scope Reduces the number of dependencies
Improve requirements Definition Ensures that there is no confusion over what is to be developed and when
Reduce activity coupling If activity links are reduced, then dependencies exert less influence
Stage projects (incremental development or iterative development) Reduces delay bias by minimizing multitasking, merging, queuing (i.e., reduces the dependencies)

Source: Vlasic, Anthony and Li Liu, “Why Information Systems Projects Are Always Late,” Proceedings Project Management Institute Research and Education Conference 2010 (Oxon Hill, MD, July 2010).

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide examples of causes of late delivery.

Presenter Notes

References

Exhibit 8.18: Initiatives to Improve On-Time Scheduled Delivery.

Source: Vlasic, Anthony and Li Liu, “Why Information Systems Projects Are Always Late,” Proceedings Project Management Institute Research and Education Conference 2010 (Oxon Hill, MD, July 2010).

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8.10 Show the Project Schedule on a Gantt Chart (1 of 2)

Gantt Chart

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Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To list the components covered in “Show the Project Schedule on a Gantt Chart” section.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

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8.10 Show the Project Schedule on a Gantt Chart (2 of 2)

Easy-to-understand tool.

Horizontal bar chart.

A bar for each activity stretched over a timeline.

Units of time are units used to create schedule.

Chart does not show critical path, predecessor–successor relationship, or late start and finish dates.

Use scheduling software.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To discuss the Gantt Chart in a project schedule.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

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8.11 PMBOK Guide 7e

8.11a Team
8.11b Development Approach
8.11c Planning
8.11d Delivery
8.11e Measurement
8.11f Uncertainty

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To list the components covered in “PMBOK Guide 7e” section.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

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8.11a Team

A project schedule is developed with a collaborative effort from the project team.

Individual team members possess knowledge about resources, time required to complete a task.

Every member of the project team must work with other team members in deciding resource allocation, sequencing tasks, and optimizing the project duration.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To discuss the team.

Presenter Notes

Experience and knowledge about similar projects executed in the past are of immense help.

A servant leadership style facilitates the development of a more realistic schedule, and teams must be allowed to self-manage for this purpose.

References

n/a

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8.11b Development Approach

In the predictive approach, scope can be defined with less ambiguity at the start of the project.

The WBS would also help in determining resources required and costs associated with each activity.

When uncertainty and risks are associated with defining requirements or volatility exists in requirements, an adaptive (incremental or iterative) development approach is preferred.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To discuss the development approach.

Presenter Notes

Developing a project schedule differs significantly based on the project type, resource availability, and uncertainties associated with requirements and resources.

References

n/a

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8.11c Planning

A predictive planning approach that creates a WBS broken down to the lowest level deliverables could be relatively comprehensive and complete.

In adaptive methods, high-level themes or epics are used to develop features that are further decomposed into stories and backlog items.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To discuss planning.

Presenter Notes

A schedule is developed for each story, one at a time, to reduce waste and eliminate uncertainty.

An adaptive approach uses incremental planning and often uses timeboxes for scheduling.

Work in each time box is based on a prioritized backlog.

References

n/a

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8.11d Delivery

The WBS is used in a predictive plan approaching to develop a comprehensive schedule.

While using an adaptive approach wherein a full-blown schedule is not opted for, a checklist of all the criteria required to be met is developed so that a deliverable can be considered ready for customer use or “definition of done” is fulfilled.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To discuss delivery.

Presenter Notes

Themes are translated into epics and then features, and each feature will have multiple user stories.

A story is a clear and concise representation of a requirement written from the end user’s perspective, and a schedule is developed only at the story level.

References

n/a

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8.11e Measurement

A project schedule includes milestones along with a timeline and success criteria for project deliverables in a predictive approach.

In an adaptive approach, schedules prepared for a sprint are used for the measurement of progress.

‹#›

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Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To discuss measurement.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

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8.11f Uncertainty

An effective schedule is not always possible when uncertainty exists in defining requirements.

Ambiguity, volatility, complexity, and risk are some of the factors associated with requirements that may compel the project team to employ an adaptive approach of developing a schedule one story or sprint at a time.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To discuss uncertainty.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

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8.12 Schedules for Agile Projects

8.12 Predictive vs. Agile
8.12a Agile Terms

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To list the components covered in “Schedules for Agile Projects” section.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

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Exhibit 8.20

Predictive vs. Agile Methods for Scheduling Projects

Scheduling Topics Predictive Agile
What are the purposes of a project schedule? Agree on end date and establish governance Set expectations
What primarily limits schedules? Logical order and individual activity duration Resources assigned
How are activities defined? Output of WBS Output of user stories
How are activities sequenced? Dependencies with leads and lags Prioritized by Product Owner, committed by team
How are durations estimated? Team and project manager work on details Team supported by scrum master use planning poker
How are schedules developed? Critical path method Team commits one iteration at a time
How are schedule uncertainties handled? PERT or simulation Prove viability early by prioritizing high-risk work
How are schedules communicated? Gantt charts and MS Project Kanban boards and sticky notes

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To compare Predictive vs. Agile methods.

Presenter Notes

In Agile projects, schedules are created using the product backlog.

The overall project schedule may be developed only at a high level.

The sequencing in Agile projects is performed at a high level for the entire project or the product release (often three to six months).

Then for each iteration, the team develops the sequence of detailed activities to be completed.

As compared to a plan-driven project management approach, an Agile project schedule is set up based on the expectations of the product owner.

Since neither owner nor project team has a clear understanding of scope, it is usually impossible to commit to a final schedule at the project outset.

Rather, both parties understand that the schedule is largely driven by the size and experience of the project team.

As stated in the previous (scope) chapter, scope is defined as user stories (what each user wants) and those are prioritized by the Product Owner.

Those stories then are sized by the project team who commits to the amount of work they can accomplish in the upcoming iteration. Stories are usually sized by the team collectively estimating the number of story points required to build each story.

A story point is not an estimate or number of work hours, but

References

Exhibit 8.20: Predictive vs. Agile Methods for Scheduling Projects.

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8.12a Agile Terms

TERM DEFINITION
Story point Estimate by team of complexity and size of specific work in story form.
Planning poker Method for team to size-specific stories quickly and relatively.
Right-sized Ensuring stories are small, understood, and testable.
Definition of ready Agreement that team understands a story enough to bring into a sprint.
Risk-based spike Short time-boxed work to address a specific risk.
Kanban board Visible information register that communicates work status as to do, in progress, or done.
Task card Sticky note or index card showing work item name and other info.
3C process Task card with conversations and confirmation of understanding.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide a list of key Agile terms.

Presenter Notes

References

Source: Anantatmula, V., and T. Kloppenborg, Be Agile Do Agile (New York, NY: Business Expert Press: 2021).

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Exhibit 8.21

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an example of a Kanban Board.

Presenter Notes

Schedules on Agile projects are communicated as transparently as possible, often using Kanban boards to display the work that is in the backlog (to do), the work that is currently in process, and the completed work.

Each item of work is a user story and is shown in savage summary form on a task card.

The task card is the first part of the 3C method, which is briefly stating the work to be done, holding a conversation about it, and then committing to understanding it.

Any team member can update the Kanban board by moving or modifying a card.

All team members feel responsible for the entire project schedule, not merely the portion they perform.

References

Exhibit 8.21: Kanban Board.

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8.13 Using Microsoft Project for Critical Path Schedules

8.13a Set Up the Project Schedule
8.13b Build the Network Diagram and Identify the Critical Path

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To list the components covered in “Schedules for Agile Projects” section.

Presenter Notes

There are five major elements affecting project completion: logical order (or sequence) of project tasks, duration of each task, the number of resources available when needed to complete those tasks, imposed dates, and cash flow.

When building schedules in MS Project, you will find it helpful to keep these limitations in order.

Stakeholders often ask, “How long is this going to take and how much will it cost me?”

You may find more success if you allow decision-makers to focus on determining the sequencing order of tasks first, rather than how long each activity will take.

References

n/a

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8.13a Using MS Project for Critical Path

​Setting up the project schedule begins with ensuring the correct start date for the project is set, and then defining your organization’s working days, hours, and holidays.​

To build the Logical Network Diagram and identify critical path start by:

Setting (or updating) the project start date.

Defining your organization’s working and non-working times.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide a high-level overview of the steps needed to create a schedule using MS Project.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

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Set (or Update) the Project Start Date

Click Project Tab>>Project Information.

Set the start date to 12/4/21.

3. Click OK.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe how to set (or update) the project start date.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

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Define Your Organization’s Working and Non-working Times

Click Project Tab>>Change Working Time.

Make sure “Standard (Project Calendar)” is selected in the “For calendar:” box.

Use the scroll bar to the right of the calendar to find the date you want to edit.

Click on the date you want to edit.

Click the Exceptions Tab in the table below the calendar, then click an empty row.

Enter a description for the non-working day in the Name column.

Click another cell in the same row (or Tab) to review the results.

Repeat these steps until all nonworking days are defined.

Deleting a row restores the default working hours for that day.

Click OK to close the project calendar options.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe how to define your organization’s working and non-working times.

Presenter Notes

MS Project’s calendar system defines working and non-working time.

The calendar system consists of a default project calendar and a resource calendar for each resource.

The project calendar refers to what you think of as a normal calendar: the working and non-working dates for a project, including holidays.

The resource calendar pertains to the resources of a project—that is, the people, equipment, space, or materials used in a project. In this tutorial, we are focused on the project calendar (the resource calendar will be addressed in a future tutorial).

To avoid unrealistic project schedules, you must ensure your organization’s working and nonworking times are defined in the project calendar (as well as resource vacations in resource calendars).

The default project calendar has all days, except Saturday and Sunday, defined as eight-hour working days.

The working hours during the day are 8:00 to 12:00 and 1:00 to 5:00. By default, no holidays are defined and must be defined as non-working days. All project calendar content is copied into all resource calendars.

Resource calendars are used to block out vacation days and other resource-specific non-working days.

Resource calendars are then used to determine when a resource assignment can be scheduled. If there are no resource assignments, the project calendar is used to determine scheduling

References

n/a

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Exhibit 8.22

Source: Microsoft product screenshots reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an example of working and non-working times in a project schedule.

Presenter Notes

References

Exhibit 8.22: Standard Calendar with Two Holidays Plus a Half Day and a Working Saturday.

Source: Microsoft product screenshots reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.

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Changing Working Times for a Day

Select the day and enter a description in the table below the calendar.

Click the Tab key to fill in the Start and Finish dates.

Click Details…

Choose the “Working Time” radio button and modify the “From:” and “To:” values in the table.

To eliminate one set of work times (such as afternoon), select those times and click the delete key so only morning times are working.

Click OK twice.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe how to change the working time for a day.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

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Exhibit 8.23

Source: Microsoft product screenshots reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an example of changing working times for a day.

Presenter Notes

References

Exhibit 8.23: Details Dialog for Half Working Day.

Source: Microsoft product screenshots reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.

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8.13b Steps to Build the Network Diagram and Identify the Critical Path

Enter tasks and milestones.

Edit the timescale.

Understand and define task dependencies.

Assign task duration estimates.

Identify the critical path.

Understand the network diagram view.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe the steps to building the network diagram and identifying the critical path.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

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Step 1: Enter Tasks and Milestones

Click on the intermediate summary task “Foundation Work” (WBS ID 2.4) to select it.

Click Task Tab>>Insert Group>>Milestone.

You will see a new milestone added to the task list; name it “Construction Begins.”

Tab over to the Start date column, and type in the date 1/10/18. (Note since a milestone typically has zero days of duration, MS Project automatically populates the Finish column with the same date.).

On the Gantt chart’s right side, you should see a diamond appear along with a date.

Repeat this step for the summary task “County clearance” (WBS ID 5) and type “Construction Complete”

To show the name of the milestone (instead of the date) on the Gantt chart’s graphical side, do the following: a. Format Tab>>Format>>Bar Styles b. Select Milestone from the list; click the Text Tab. c. In the “Right” field of the table, change to Name. d. Click OK. e. The milestone name should replace the date on the right side.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe the steps to enter a task and/or milestone.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

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Step 2: Edit the Timescale

Right-Click the time scale>>Timescale…

Click the Middle Tier Tab.

Change Units to Months; Label to January; set Count to 1; set Size to 55. (Note: Size sets the space between each tick mark on the timescale for that item).

Click the Bottom Tier Tab.

Change Units to Weeks; Label to 1/25, 2/1, …; set Count to 1; set Size to 55.

Click OK.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe how to edit the timescale.

Presenter Notes

Along the top of the right side of the Gantt chart is the timescale.

This is different from the Timeline view.

If the Timeline view is showing above your entire Gantt chart, you can hide it by clicking View Tab>>Split View Group>> Uncheck Timeline.

The default view of the timescale is likely set to show the Year and Quarter in a “two-tier” layout.

For our project, we want to show Months and Weeks.

References

n/a

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Exhibit 8.24

Source: Microsoft Corporation.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an example of a Gantt chart with WBS elements, tasks, milestones.

Presenter Notes

References

Exhibit 8.24: Gantt Chart View with WBS Elements, Tasks, and Milestones.

Source: Microsoft product screenshots reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.

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Step 3: Understand and Define Task Dependencies

Click on the Task Name field to select the predecessor task row.

Press and hold Ctrl while selecting the successor task.

Release Ctrl after you click your selection.

Click the Task Tab>>Schedule Group>>Link Tasks (chain icon). (Delete a dependency definition by again selecting both tasks and then clicking on Unlink Tasks (broken chain icon)).

Adding (or deleting) Task ID numbers in the “Predecessor” column is another way you can define task dependencies.

A series of dependencies can also be defined or deleted similarly:

Select all of the tasks to be linked in a series. (Click and drag with the mouse or Shift-Click the first and last task in the series).

2. Click the Task Tab>>Schedule Group>> Link Tasks or Unlink Tasks

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe how to understand and define task dependencies.

Presenter Notes

A task dependency definition includes both a logical link type (finish-to-start, start-to-start, finish-to-finish, or start-to-finish) and any associated lead or lag value.

The default link type in MS Project is finish-to-start.

The default lead or lag value is zero days.

Task dependencies may be established and viewed graphically in the Network Diagram view and several different Gantt views.

For the Suburban Parks Home project example, determining dependencies and sequencing is straightforward.

Most deliverables in this example must be completed before the next one can be started.

Subtasks of each deliverable likely need some sequencing, and it is helpful to think about what tasks could be done in parallel or where there could be overlap.

Sequencing decisions are usually made with the input of the project manager, the sponsor, and other key project stakeholders.

Projects of any real size are rarely as straightforward as this example.

Before defining dependencies, ensure the “Start,” “Finish,” and “Predecessors,” columns are visible.

You can show more columns on the Gantt chart to the right of the “Duration” column by sliding the view divider to the right.

The “Predecessors” column shows the Task ID number (not the WBS code) for predecessor tasks.

References

n/a

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Step 4: Assign Task Duration Estimates

Click the Duration cell of the task and enter the duration value.

If days are being used, an adjustment can be made up or down with the arrows.

A number can also be deleted and then another number typed in the cell.

MS Project will automatically determine the duration for each summary task as you adjust subtask durations.

Assign durations to your project.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe how to assign task duration estimates.

Presenter Notes

Once the logical sequence of project tasks is established, it is time to assign duration estimates to those tasks so the critical path can be identified, and the actual working schedule can be determined.

This is accomplished by first assigning duration estimates and then by instructing MS Project to identify the critical path.

The first principle to keep in mind is to use the same unit of time for each task. Mixing up hours, days, or weeks will create confusion.

The default time unit is days, so this tutorial uses days.

The second principle is to only assign duration estimates to subtasks, not their summaries. MS Project calculates the duration for WBS summaries based on the durations selected for the tasks that comprise each summary.

References

n/a

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Exhibit 8.25

Source: Microsoft Corporation.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an example of assigning durations.

Presenter Notes

As you start defining task dependencies, you will notice the durations and the start/finish dates change as MS Project begins to build the schedule.

The right side of the Gantt chart also begins to take shape.

Task relationship arrows show finish-to-start links. Using the Predecessors column as a guide, update your task dependencies to match those in Exhibit 8.25.

References

Exhibit 8.25: Partial Network Diagram.

Source: Microsoft product screenshots reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.

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Step 5: Identify the Critical Path

Click the Task Tab>>Format Tab>>Bar Styles Group>>check Critical Tasks.

You should now see all your critical tasks shown in red (as in Exhibit 8.25).

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe how to identify the critical path.

Presenter Notes

In most graphical task views, MS Project can mark Gantt bars of critical path tasks and network diagram task nodes in red.

Unfortunately, this is not the default behavior so you will need to enable this visual cue manually via bar styles.

References

n/a

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Step 6: Understand the Network Diagram View

Click the View Tab>>Task Views Group>>Network Diagram. (The network diagram appears. Logical links between tasks can be seen as link lines in blue (non-critical path) and red (critical path)).

Zoom the view out using the zoom slider at the bottom right of the screen (or Ctrl-Scroll).

Click the Format Tab>>uncheck Summary Tasks.

Click the Format Tab>>Format Group>>Layout>>uncheck “Show page breaks” and check “Hide all fields except ID” (tasks are denoted by Task ID).

5. Click OK.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To describe how to understand the network diagram view.

Presenter Notes

The network diagram can be used to verify the logical flow of the project, find tasks with no predecessor or successor, spot opportunities to complete tasks in parallel or overlap, and see the critical path across the project.

The Suburban Parks Home project is a straightforward example, so the network diagram is not as useful as it could be in more complex projects.

Although they can be printed, network diagrams in MS Project are best viewed on the computer as they can become quite large.

Printing the entire diagram usefully requires piecing multiple sheets of paper or a large-format printer.

Network diagrams in MS Project can be unwieldy and difficult to work with, but there are a few ways to make them slightly more user-friendly.

References

n/a

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Exhibit 8.26

Source: Microsoft product screenshots reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an example of a network diagram view showing all tasks, summary tasks, and milestones.

Presenter Notes

References

Exhibit 8.26: Bank Project with Startup and Initiation Details.

Source: Microsoft product screenshots reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.

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Exhibit 8.27

Source: Microsoft product screenshots reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide an example of a simplified network diagram.

Presenter Notes

References

Exhibit 8.27: Bank Project with Executing and Closing Activities.

Source: Microsoft product screenshots reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.

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Summary

Project schedules are created by listing all activities that will need to be performed (define activities): How? By whom? How long? How much?

Determine predecessors and successors to sequence activities (sequence activities).

Estimate how long each activity will take (estimate activity durations).

Developing schedule is an iterative process.

‹#›

Kloppenborg | Anantatmula | Wells, Contemporary Project Management: Plan-Driven and Agile Approaches, 5th Edition. © 2023 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Key Learnings (Purpose of this slide)

To provide a high-level summary of this chapter.

Presenter Notes

References

n/a

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