3 questions:

Each question 12-13 pages without reference pages. 

APA 7th edition Reference and Mostly peer reviewed source requirement. 

No plagiarism.

DBA level writing 



Comprehensive Paper Presented in Partial Fulfillment

Of the Requirements for DBA

Comprehensive Examination


1. Many of today's best companies realize that success of an enterprise can be measured in ways other than financial statements (Johnson, 2003). Identify the importance to the stakeholders, as well as stockholders, of an enterprise operating in an ethically and socially responsible manner. Analyze how acting socially responsible and ethical affects the bottom line, and justify or defend your position. (Business Ethics and Social Responsibility).

2. Case study research has become a very popular approach in qualitative research, especially in business and education (Babbie, 2010; Yin, 2016). Explain how the case study approach, which focuses attention on one or a few instances of some social phenomenon, is appropriate in exploring traffic fatalities in a certain geographic area. Analyze the origin of the case study approach and its appropriateness in social science research, including the types of case studies. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the case study method compared with other qualitative and quantitative approaches. (Research Methods: Case Study)

3. According to Hartman et al. (2018), ethics are concerned with how an individuals act and how one should live. It is normative, which means an individual intends to find out which actions are right and wrong or which character traits are good and bad. Business ethics relates to an individual’s or an organization’s decisions that society evaluates as right or wrong, while social responsibility is a broader concepts that concerns the impact of the entire organization’s activities on society. Define business ethics and social responsibility and explain its relevance to business and detect some of the ethical issues that may arise in a business and what responsibilities does a business have towards its employees and to the society. (Business Ethics and Social Responsibility).



APA 7th Edition

1. “Running head” is not required before the [SHORTENED TITLE UP TO 50 CHARACTERS] flush left, in capitals, in the header of your paper.

2. What are in-text citations?

They are written in the past tense in APA 7th edition, and there are two types:

1. Narrative citation (a direct citation)

Introduce your direct citation with the author’s last name and year of publication in parenthesis.

Work by one author:

· Alexander (2018) stated, “…” (p.10).

· According to Alexander (2018), “…” (p.10).

· Smith (2022) explained, “…” (p.2).

2. Paraphrased citation (parenthetical citation)

Paraphrase your reference by putting the author’s words in your own and including the author’s last name followed by the year of publication in parenthesis.

Work by one author:

Alexander (2018) claimed …

Covey (2013) claimed …

Smith (2022) claimed …

Parenthetical Citation:

… (Alexander, 2018).

… (Covey, 2013).

… (Smith, 2022).

The page number is not required for a paraphrase. If it is a longer work or report, (per APA 7th ed. Manual p.269), however, a page number can be included, but it must be placed at the end of the paraphrased sentence in parenthesis.

…. (Alexander, 2018, p.50).

Reference list entry:

Alexander, P.A. (2018). Past as prologue: Educational psychology’s

legacy and progency. Journal of Educational Psychology,

110(2), 147-162. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000200

Chen, L., Smith, A., & Johnson, B. (2020). The impact of social media

on consumer trust. Journal of Marketing Research, 45(2),


Covey, S. R. (2013). The 7 habits of highly effective people:

Powerful lessons in personal change. Simon & Schuster.

Dweck, C. S. (2016). Mindset: The new psychology of success (2nd

ed.). Ballantine Books.

Jones, P., Williams, R., & Brown, K. (2018). Leveraging social media

analytics for personalized marketing. Journal of Business Analytics, 30(4), 301-315.

Nicol, J. L., Forster, K. I., & Veres, C. (1997). Subject–Verb

Agreement Processes in Comprehension. Journal of Memory and

Language, 36(4), 569–587. ttps://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1996.2497

Shivanna, K.R. (2022). Climate change and its impact on biodiversity

and human welfare. National Center for Biotechnology

Information, 88(2), 160-171. ProcIndian Natl Sci Acad.

Smith, J. (2022). The Impact of Technology on Education. Journal

of Educational Technology, 10(2), 45-60.


Smith, J., & Johnson, D. (2019). The rise of social media in consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Trends, 15(3), 245-258.

Work by two authors:

Paraphrased citation:

McCauley and Christiansen (2018) claimed …

Smith and Johnson (2019) claimed …

Parenthetical citation:

… (McCauley & Christiansen, 2018).

… (Smith & Johnson, 2019).

Direct citation:

McCauley and Christiansen (2018) stated, “…” (p.2).

Reference list entry:

McCauley, S. M., & Christiansen, M.H. (2019). Language learning

as language use: a cross-linguistic model of child language development. Psychological Review, 126(1), 1-51. https://doi.org/10.1037/rev0000126

Work by more than two (multiple) authors:

Williams et al., (2016) claimed …

… (Williams et al., 2016).

Williams, J.L., Kendall, B.E., & Levine, J.M. (2016). Rapid

evolution accelerates plant population spread in fragmented experimental landscapes examined the extent of plant population that can spread in fragmented experimental l landscapes. Psychological Review, 126(1), 1-51. https:// DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf6268

i. How do students avoid plagiarism?

a. Paraphrase (write another author’s work in their own words)

Use the past tense of the verb as follows:

Alexander (2018) claimed …

… (Alexander, 2018).

Parenthetical citation:

Bleaching of coral has had a destructive effect on the Great Barrier Reef (McMahon et al., 2019).

Climate change has been found to have a significant effect on biodiversity (Smith et al., 2019).

i. Citing a paraphrased point. When referring to another author’s ideas, include the author’s name and the year the book was published. For example, here are two ways to cite a point from a book by a single author: 1) Smith (2010) claimed the economic downturn resulted directly from abuses in the banking sector, or 2) The economic downturn resulted directly from abuses in the banking sector (Smith, 2010, p. 163).

b. Summarize (is a shortened rephrasing of their own or another

author’s main idea).

c. Directly Quote (a direct citation of another author’s actual words

in quotation marks).

1. Citing a direct quote from a book by one author : Smith (2010) stated, “The banking sector’s abuses were largely to blame for the failing economy” (p. 163). Be sure to include quotation marks and keep your direct quote brief, preferring paraphrase over quotation.

2. Citing two authors: When citing from a book by two authors, introduce the quotation by separating the authors’ last names with “and” followed by the year of publication in parenthesis and the exact words of the authors’ in quotation marks followed by the page number in parenthesis as follows:

McCauley and Christiansen (2018) stated, “…” (p. 10).

3. Citing multiple authors (3-5). When citing multiple authors, for example, more than three authors from a book such as Williams, Young, Evans, & Ruiz (2016), just cite the first author by last name and et al., followed by the year of publication as follows:

According to Williams et al., (2016), “…” (p. 2).

Williams et al., (2016) stated, “…” (p.2).

Maddi et al., (2006) stated, “Previous research has established hardiness as a dispositional factor in preserving and enhancing performance and health despite stressful circumstances” (p.1).

APA Style for List of References

1. The “ References” title must be in bold and centered.

2. When composing the References page, for books, the publisher location is no longer needed. All that is required is the publisher’s name as follows:

Williams, B., Young, A., Evans, P. & Ruiz, A. (2016). Human resource management

(4th ed.). Pearson.

3. For an authored book with a DOI, list as follows:

Brown, L.S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.


Williams, B., Young, A., Evans, P. & Ruiz, A. (2016). Human resource

management (4th ed.). Pearson.

4. In a website source, and the author’s last name is known, list the reference as follows:

Author’s Last Name, first initials. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Website name.


Hamman, J. (2019, November 21).  What teachers should know about dysgraphia.

Edutopia.  https://www.edutopia.org/article/what-teachers-should-know-about-dys


5. If you the author’s last name is unknown in a website source, begin with the

title of the website source followed by the date in parentheses as follows:

Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. (2004). The role of media in childhood

obesity. http://www.kff.org/entmedia/7030.cfm

6. When you list an academic journal article, you would list it as follows:

Williams, J.L., Kendall, B.E., & Levine, J.M. (2016). Rapid evolution accelerates

plant population spread in fragmented experimental landscapes. Science 29, 353(6298), 482-485. https://doi.org/ 10.1126/science.aaf6268

7. When listing a reference that includes a DOI (digital object identifier), it would

be listed as follows:

Bruce, R., Etnyre & Eva J. Lee (1988). Chronic and Acute Flexibility of Men and

Women Using Three Different Stretching Techniques. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 59(3), 222-228. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1988.10605507

When formatting and listing your references correctly in your “References” at the end of your paper, you create clarity for the reader, give credit to the author for their work, and show the reader where they can easily locate the source for further reference.

APA Reference List of Most Commonly Used Reference Types

(From APA Manual 7th Edition)

Article (Journal or Magazine located on a website with a DOI – Digital Object Identifier)

Author’s Last Name, First Initial. (Date published). Title of article in sentence

capitalization. Title of Journal or Magazine. Volume Number (Issue). Pages. URL of web address. DOI https://doi.org/xx.xxxx/revxxxxxx

Dyrud, M.A. (2001). Group projects and peer review. Business Communication

Quarterly, 64(4), 106-112. https://doi.org/10.1177/108056990106400412

Online Magazine Article

Bergeson, S. (2019, January 4). Really cool neutral plasmas. Science, 363(6422), 33-34.


Online Newspaper Article

Author’s last name, first initial. (Year, Month Day). Title in title case or sentence

capitalization. Title of newspaper in italics. URL.

Plumer, B. (2022, September 1). California approves a wave of aggressive new climate

measures. The New York Times. Breaking news: California passes aggressive climate measures / (nytimes.com)


Author’s Last Name, First Initial(s). (Date published). Title of book in sentence

capitalization and italics (edition). Publisher.

Jones, G. (2013). Organizational theory, design, and change (7th ed.). Pearson.


Author’s Last Name, First Initial. (Date published). Title of book in sentence

capitalization. Publisher. URL of website.

Brück, M. (2009). Women in early British and Irish astronomy: Stars and satellites.

Springer Nature. https:/doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2473-2

Audio Book

Cain, S. (2012). Quiet: The power of introverts in a world that can’t stop talking

(K. Mazur, Narr.) [Audiobook]. Random House Audio. http://bit.ly/2G0Bpbl

Chapter in an edited book without a DOI (print version)

Author, A.A., & Author B. B; (Date published). Title of chapter. Edited book information.

Weinstock, R., Leong, G.B., & Silva, J.A. (2003). Defining forensic psychiatry: Roles

and responsibilities. In R. Rosner (Ed.), Principles and practice of forensic

psychiatry (2nd ed., pp.7-13). CRC Press.

Online Source from a Website by One Author

Author’s Last Name, First Initial. (Year published, Month, Day). Title of article. Website name . URL of web address

Hamman, J. (2019, November 21).  What teachers should know about dysgraphia.

Edutopia.  https://www.edutopia.org/article/what-teachers-should-know-about-dysgraphia

Smith, J. K. (2022, March 27). The effects of air pollution on human health. Environmental

Health and Safety. https://www.ehs.com/effects-of-air-pollution-on-human-health

Wolpert, S. (2019, July 25). Einstein’s general relativity theory is questioned but still

stands ‘for now,’ team reports. UCLA Newsroom – Science & Technology. Einstein’s general relativity theory is questioned but still stands ‘for now,’ team

reports | UCLA

Online Source from a Website by One Author with a Retrieval Date

Author’s Last Name, First Initial. (Year published, Month, Day). Title of article. Website name .

Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL of web address

Online Source from a Website by a Group Author with a Retrieval date (Author and Year of Publication unknown)

Group Author’s Last Name (n.d.). Title of article. Website name . Retrieved Month Day, Year,

from URL of web address

U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). U.S. and world population clock. U.S. Department of

Commerce. Retrieved July 3, 2019, from https://www.census.gov/popclock/

Online Source from a Website by a Group Author

Group Author’s Last Name, First Initial. (Year published, Month, Day). Title of article. Website

name . URL of web address

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological

Association. (7th ed.). https://apastyle.apa.org

If the website name is the same as the group author, it is omitted.

Meditation Now. (2023, April 2). The Benefits of Meditation.


Page or Section from an Online Source from an Unknown author; date unknown

Title of section (italicized) (n.d.). Website name. URL.

Timeline: Environmental Movement (n.d.). The Canadian

Encyclopedia. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/timeline/environ ment.

Article from a News Website

Author’s Last Name, First Initial. (Year published, Month, Day). Title of article. News website name . URL of web address

Avramova, N. (2019, January 3). The secret to a long, happy, healthy life? Think age-

positive. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/01/03/heathl/respect-toward-elderly-leads-to-long-life-intl/index.html

US Government Report

Name of Organization. (Date published) Title of report (italicized). Government website name.

URL of web address.

National Cancer Institute. (2018). Facing forward: Life after cancer treatment (NIH

Publication No. 18-2424). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/life-after-treatment.pdf

Parenthetical citation: … (National Cancer Institute, 2018).

Narrative citation: The National Cancer Institute (2018) claimed …

Direct citation: The National Cancer Institute (2018) stated, “…” (p.20).

According to The National Cancer Institute (2018)'s report …"…." (p.20).

U.S. Government Act:

The Civil Rights Act (1964) explained …

According to The Civil Rights Act (1964), “…”

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII) explained that … (Aiken et al., 2013).

Religious Work:

King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online.

https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/(Original Work published 1769)

The Qur’an (M.A.S. Abdel Haleem, Trans.). (2004). Oxford University Press.

The Torah: The five books of Moses (3rd ed.). (2015). The Jewishe Publication Society.

(Original work published 1962)

Parenthetical citation: ( King James Bible, 1769/2017, 1 Cor. 13:1).

Narrative citation : King James Bible (1769/2017) …

Theater Play:

Shakespeare, W. (1995). Much ado about nothing (B.A. Mowat & P. Werstine, Eds.)

Washington Square Press. (Original work published 1623)

Parenthetical citation: … (Shakespeare, 1623/1995).

Narrative citation: Shakespeare (1623/1995) …

Citing a specific part of the play (Act, Scene, page number):

… (Shakespeare, 1623/1995, 1.3.36-37).

Film or Video

Author’s Last Name, first initials. (Director). (Date produced). Title of film (italicized).

[Film]. Producer’s Name.

Forman, M. (Director). (1975). One flew over the cuckoo’s nest [Film]. United Artists.

Parenthetical citation: … (Forman, 1975).

Paraphrased citation: Forman (1975) claimed …

APA References

When for